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This boo\ is the gift of 

George B. King 

Ph.D., B.D., D.D. 

Gold Medalist in Divinity 

Faculty of Theology 

Victoria University 


Dean of the Faculty of Theology 

United College, Winnipeg 












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THE object of this series of translations is primarily 
to furnish students with short, cheap, and handy 
text-books, which, it is hoped, will facilitate the 
study of the particular texts in class under com 
petent teachers. But it is also hoped that the 
volumes will be acceptable to the general reader 
who may be interested in the subjects with which 
they deal. It has been thought advisable, as a 
general rule, to restrict the notes and comments to 
a small compass ; more especially as, in most cases, 
excellent works of a more elaborate character are 
available. Indeed, it is much to be desired that 
these translations may have the effect of inducing 
readers to study the larger works. 

Our principal aim, in a word, is to make some 
difficult texts, important for the study of Christian 
origins, more generally accessible in faithful and 
scholarly translations. 

In most cases these texts are not available in a 
cheap and handy form. In one or two cases texts 
have been included of books which are available 
in the official Apocrypha; but in every such case 
reasons exist for putting forth these texts in a new 
translation, with an Introduction, in this Series. 

G. H. Box. 






8 V. BIBLIOGRAPHY ..... xlx 






I. Title, Contents, and Character of the Tractate. 

THE title of this tractate means literally " Sections," or 
"Chapters," of the Fathers. The " Sections " consist, however, in 
the main, of short sayings of the early Jewish Fathers or Rabbis 
(properly "Teachers"); hence the name "Sayings of the 
Fathers," by which it is usually known in English. But, in 
asmuch as the sayings are for the most part of an ethical 
character, the tractate often goes under the name of " Ethics of 
the Fathers." The Mishnah, to which this tractate belongs, con 
sists of six " Orders " (Sedarim\ each of which contains a varying 
number of tractates ; the fourth " Order " is Nezikin (" Damages "), 
and has ten tractates, of which Pirke Aboth is the ninth. In 
Jewish literature it is usually referred to in the abbreviated form 

In its present form Pirke Abolh consists of six chapters ; the 
contents of these are briefly as follows : Chapter I. records 
sayings of Jewish sages from Simeon the Just, high-priest from 
about 226-198 B.C., 1 to Simeon II., son of Gamliel I., 2 who died 
about 70 A.D. The names of the Fathers are given in chrono 
logical order. Chapter II. continues what was begun in Chapter I., 
but the names are not all in chronological sequence. The 
sayings are mostly those of Rabbi Jochanan ben Zakkai, of his 
teacher Hillel, and of some of his most prominent pupils ; the 
period is roughly from soon after the destruction of Jerusalem to 
the first quarter of the second century. In Chapter III. the 
names of the Fathers and their sayings seem to have been put 
down in a very haphazard way ; there is no attempt at chrono 
logical order, nor is there any sign of arrangement according to 

1 See note on i. i. 2 See notes on i. 16, 17, 18. 

subject-matter. The Fathers mentioned lived, some in the latter 
part of the first, and former half of the second, century A.D., and 
others during the second century; none are of later date than 
this. It is the same in Chapter IV., though two Fathers are 
mentioned who lived in the early part of the third century. 
In Chapter V. the sayings are all anonymous, and they are of 
a character different from those of the earlier chapters ; they are 
for the most part tabulations of certain things by number, this 
idea being a development of something similar found in some 
passages of the Book of Proverbs, e.g. vi.i6. Towards the end of 
this chapter a few sayings occur which are more in the form of 
the earlier ones, though somewhat longer. But, taken as a whole, 
the sayings in Chapter V. are distinctly inferior to those in 
Chapters I. -IV. They contain some quaint legendary matter, 
some of which is interesting from the point of view of folk-lore ; 
there are also a number of remarks which show much knowledge 
of human nature. Chapter VI. is universally recognised as a later 
addition, 1 and it is full of borrowings from the earlier chapters. 
It is called " Kinyan Torah " (" The Acquisition of the Torah ") ; 
the name " Perek (Chapter) of Rabbi Meir " has been given to 
it because the first saying is one of his ; it is quite possible that 
the sayings in this chapter ascribed to particular Rabbis are 
genuine, and therefore as old as many of those in the earlier 
chapters ; but the greater part of the material is anonymous. Its 
title, " Kinyan Torah," is thoroughly appropriate. 

The sayings, in general, of this tractate are ethical-religious, 
and are full of sound counsel and guidance ; indeed, the tractate 
may be regarded as belonging to the Wisdom literature of the 
Jews ; it is often reminiscent of the Book of Proverbs, which, in 
addition, is quoted again and again, and of the Wisdom of 
Ben Sira; its "humanness," especially, constantly reminds one of 
Ben Sira s sayings. It occupied, and still occupies, a position 
in the Jewish Church comparable with that of the Wisdom of 
/Ben Sira in the early Christian Church ; but, more than this, 
it has, ever since the eleventh century, been incorporated in the 
Jewish Liturgy. It used to be read in the Synagogue service for 

] It is not included in the Mishnah on which the Palestinian Talmud rests ; 
see Lowe s edition of this, pp. 143 ff. (1883). 


Sabbath afternoon during the summer months ; but usually it is 
now read chapter by chapter on the six Sabbaths after Passover 
respectively at the afternoon service. This use differs, however, 
in different countries. This liturgical use of Pirke Aboth has 
resulted in making it the most popular and best known of all 
Rabbinical writings. "The Talmudic saying, that Whosoever 
would be pious must fulfil the dicta of the Fathers, is quoted by 
Rabbinical commentators in their introductions to Pirke Aboth, 
and the tract has been described, with reference to this saying, as 
Mishnath ha-Chasidim, a course of instruction for the pious." 1 

II. Importance of the Tractate for the Study of the New ; 


As the oldest collection, in post-Biblical times, of the sayings of 
Jewish sages, 2 Pirke Aboth possesses the importance which 
naturally attaches to any ancient authoritative document. It 
is also important its perusal will show this as containing a great 
deal of material which is of permanent value for its own sake. 
But its special importance lies, we venture to think, in the insight 
it gives into the way of thought, the general mental outlook, and 
the method of expression of the early Synagogue ; for the 
knowledge of the Jewish spirit which is gained by the study of 
this tractate is of the greatest importance to the student of the 
New Testament. Above all, the doctrinal standpoint of Judaism 
here presented and put forth by the greatest of Israel s early 
post-Biblical teachers is we believe it is no exaggeration to say 
so indispensable for the thorough understanding of New Testa 
ment doctrinal teaching. Very instructive, too, is the significant 
contrast in some vital particulars between its teaching and that of 
both the Founder of Christianity and St. Paul. These things are 
so important that a few illustrative example^ will not be out 
of place; but to gain a real insight into their importance and 

1 Taylor, p. 3. 

a We are not forgetting the bool^fof the Wisdom of Ben Sira. This, how 
ever, is not a collection of sayings by a large variety of sages, handed down by 
word of mouth, and ultimately gathered together ; but a written composition 
from the pen of a single writer. 


significance demands a careful reading of the translation of the 
tractate together with the notes ; in these latter many references 
to the New Testament will be found. 

We may refer first to a few of the many words and expressions 
which are common to this tractate and the -New Testament ; 
the interest of these is that they point to a common stock of 

i language, both Hebrew and Greek, lying behind both ; and, 
therefore, one can be illustrated from the other in their use of 
them. There is frequent reference to the "wise men," called 
Chakamim, as well as (though not so often) to the Sopherim^ or 
"Scribes," so often mentioned in the New Testament, e.g. 
Matt, xxiii. 34 : "I send unto you prophets, and wise men (croqWs), 
and scribes (ypa/x/xarei?) " ; cp. i Cor. i. 20. Though an actual 
equivalent of vo/xi/cos ("Lawyer"; cp. Matt. xx. 35, etc.) does not 
occur, the tractate is full of examples of men versed in the Law. 

) The term Rabbi (cp. Pa/3/3et, Matt. xxvi. 49 ; Mark x. 51 ; John i. 

39, etc. ; it does not occur in Luke) is found on every page ; this 
is transliterated from Hebrew to Greek, like Golgotha (Matt. 
xxvii. 23) and Mammon (Matt. vi. 24), words which also appear 
in the tractate ; but there are also a number of cases in which 
Greek words are Hebraised, e.g. dppa/?oov ("earnest," "pledge," 
Hi. 23) ; cp. 2 Cor, i. 22 ; Eph. i. 13, 14; tfupeos ("shield," iv. 13); 
cp* Eph. vi. 16; KaT?jyopos ("accuser," iv. 13); cp. Rev. xii. 10 ; 
TriVaf ("writing-tablet," iii. 23); cp. irivaKi8iov, Luke i. 63 ; irapd- 
K\r)Tos ("comforter," iv. 13); cp. John xiv. 6; i John ii. i; 
o-Troyyos (" sponge," v. 17) ; cp. Matt, xxvii. 48. Further, there are 
many expressions in the tractate which illustrate equivalents in the 
New Testament, e.g. the substitution of " Heaven " for " God "; 
this, together with other means of avoiding direct mention of 
God, occurs very often ; the same thing is found in the New 
Testament, especially in the expression "kingdom of Heaven," 
and " the Lord " ( = Adonai^ written in the tractate). Then we 
have the expressions: "the world to come" (ha- 1 lam ha-ba, 
e.g. ii. 8), as distinct from "this world" (ha- Olam ha-zeli) ; cp. 
Eph. i. 21, 6 atwv 6 fieXXwv and 6 aiwi/ OVTOS ; cp. also Mark. x. 30 ; 
Luke xviii. 30; the comprehensive word Berioth, "mankind" as 
a creation (i. 12, and often elsewhere in the tractate), for which 
is the exact equivalent; cp. Mark xvi. 15, Krjpvgare TO 
Tratrr; rfj KTtVei ; see also Rom. i. 25 I Vlll. 19; 


Col. i. 15, etc.; "the many" (ha-Rabbim, v. 20); cp. Rom. 
V. 19 : ... a/xaprwXoi xaTe(TTa.@r](rai ol TroXXoi ; the use of the word 
"way"(ii. i, etc.) is precisely that found in such passages as 
Matt. vii. 13, 14; Acts xviii. 26; xix. 9, etc. ; so, too, Abodah^ 
i. 2, used of the " Service " in the Temple ; this has its equivalent 
in XaTpei a, Rom. ix. 4. Then there is the expression "guilty of" 
(chayyab, i. 13, etc.), which has its equivalent in 1/0^05, Matt, 
xxvi. 66; i Cor. xi. 27 ; James ii. 10, etc. The word "righteous 
ness " in the sense of almsgiving (Zedakah\ which occurs often in 
the tractate, is used in the identical way in the New Testament ; 
very instructive here is the passage, Matt. vi. 1-4 : Trpoo-e^cre TT/I/ 
SiKaiofTvvrjv VJJLWV ^ 7roieu> e/JLTrpocrOfv TWV avOpwTrwv . . . orav ovv 
Troths \rjfjLotTvvqv . . . The expression " people of the land " 
( am ha-aretz\ in the sense of those who are ignorant of the Law, 
illustrates John vii. 49 : 6 o^Xos oSros 6 /XT) yivoxrKwv TOV vopov eiVif. The expression " Peace " (Shalom) for greeting a 
man (e.g. in iv. 20 and elsewhere) has its equivalent in Luke x. 5 : 
TrpaJrov XeyeTe Eiprjvr; TO) ot/cw TOVTO>, and other New Testament 
passages. The form of quotations from, and references to, the 
Old Testament is the same in the New Testament as in this 
tractate ; an especially instructive example is the expression 
" in David " in several instances when the Psalms are quoted ; 
cp. Acts i. 1 6 ; ii. 25 ; although the exact words do not occur 
in the New Testament, the form does, e.g. u in Hosea" (Rom. 
ix. 25), "in Elijah" (Rom. xi. 2). We have also the expression 
"our father Abraham" (v. 3); cp. Matt. iii. 9; Luke xvi. 24; 
John. viii. 53 : ^ <rv /xei<ov el TOV Trarpos rjfJiwv A/3paa/x ; Rom. 
iv. i ; and the still more interesting words in v. 22 : "Be strong 
... to do the will of thy Father which is in Heaven " ; cp. 
Matt. vi. 9, etc. 

Then we have many thoughts and ideas which are important 
and full of interest for the study of the New Testament; the 
following may serve as examples : In ii. i it is said : " Keep in 
mind three things, and thou wilt not come into the power of 
sin " ; one is " all thy works written in a book " ; with this 
cp. Rev. xx. 12: "... and the dead were judged out of the 
things which were written in the books according to their works." 
In iii. 23 there is a reference to the Messianic banquet in the 
words : " The judgement is a judgement of truth ; and everything 


is prepared for the banquet"; this illustrates such passages as 
Matt viii. 1 1 : " Many shall come from the east and the west, 
and shall sit down (di dKAttfrjo-ovTai) with Abraham, and Isaac, and 
Jacob in the kingdom of Heaven"; cp. also Matt. xxvi. 29; 
Rev. xix. 9. In vi. 6 the Torah is spoken of as " clothing " a 
man " with humility and fear " ; both in thought and language we 
are reminded here of the words in i Pet. v. 5 : "... be clothed 
with humility." In iv. 17 the expression "the crown of priest 
hood " recalls " a royal priesthood " in i Pet. ii. 9. The " crown 
of Torah" (i. 13; iv. 17 ; vi. 7), remembering that the Torah is 
referred to as the source of life (vi. 7 and elsewhere), is reminiscent 
of James i. 12 : ... "he shall receive the crown of life." Striking, 
too, are the words in iii. 6: " Whosoever takes upon him the 
yoke of the Torah . . . ," in view of Matt. xi. 29, 30 : " Take My 
yoke upon you and learn of Me . . . " ; also in the next verse 
(iii. 7) the words : " When ten sit together and are occupied with 
the Torah, the Shekhinah is among them," with which cp. Matt, 
xviii. 20 : " For where two or three are gathered together in 
My Name, there am I in the midst of them." It is very 
instructive to notice how often Christ substitutes Elimself for the 
Torah. In v. 19, 21 there are references to the controversy 
or "gainsaying" of Korah, and to "Balaam the wicked," which 
recall similar references in Jude n : "the error of Balaam" and 
" the gainsaying of Korah." In vi. 2 the " Bath-Kol " is spoken 
of, and this idea underlies such passages as Matt. iii. 13-17 : 
" a voice out of the heavens " ; cp. Mark ix. 7 ; John xii. 28-30 ; 
Acts ix. 3-7; x. 13, 15; Rev. x. 4; xiv. 13. 

These are but a few examples, very far from being exhaustive, 
of the way in which Pirke Aboth illustrates the New Testament. 
There are a number of other ways, in addition to those mentioned, 
by which it could be shown how very useful this tractate, the only 
one of its kind, is to students of the New Testament ; in the 
matter of customs, manners, numbers, archaeological points, com 
parisons, mental pictures, allegories, parables, etc., an immense 
deal is offered in this short tractate. To illustrate all these with 
examples here would be easy enough, but space would not permit 
of it. A glance at the notes in the following commentary will 
show how often passages in the New Testament are referred to ; 
a careful reading of the text Vill probably suggest others. 


But even more important than all that has been said is the 
doctrinal standpoint of Pirke Aboth ; for here we get, as nowhere 
else, the doctrinal position of orthodox Judaism as this existed 
during the New Testament period. The doctrine of God, of the 
I^aw, of Works, of Merit, of Sin, of Grace and Free-will, not to 
mention subsidiary points, are all referred to in the tractate 
specifically, or incidentally, or implicitly. From this point of 
view the importance of Pirke Aboth for the study and under 
standing of the New Testament can hardly be exaggerated. But 
obviously these things can only be referred to here ; to deal with 
them at all adequately a separate volume would be required. 

III. The Authors of the Sayings. 

The authors of the sayings preserved in Pirke Aboth are many 
in number ; altogether sixty-five are named. Several hundreds of 
Rabbis are mentioned in the Mishnah ; and it is sometimes 
difficult to understand why some of these names have been 
omitted from, and others included in, this tractate. Apart from 
"the men of the Great Synagogue" (so-called) to whom collectively 
three sayings are attributed, the list of names begins with that of 
Simeon the Just ; this was, in all probability, the high-priest 
Simeon II., who filled this office 226-198 B.C. ; and it goes down to 
Rabbis who lived during the third century of our era. Roughly 
speaking, therefore, we are dealing with the sayings of Jewish 
teachers who lived during a period of four centuries, or a little 
over and this a period of vital importance for doctrinal Judaism. 

A few words regarding some of the most important of these 
teachers will not be without interest. 

Simeon II. has an interest for us on account of Ben Sira s 
panegyric in Sir. 1. 1-24, where he is spoken of thus : 

" Great among his brethren and the glory of his people 
Was Simeon the son of Jochanan ( = Onias) the priest . . . 
How glorious was he when he looked forth from the Tent, 
And when he came out from the Sanctuary ! 
Like a morning-star from between the clouds, 
And like the full moon on the feast-days ; 
Like the sun shining upon the Temple of the Most High, 
And like the rainbow becoming visible in the cloud ..." 


Simeon ben Shetach, of later date, is said to have been the 
brother of the queen Alexandra (Salome), who reigned B.C. 76-67 ; 
whether this was so or not, certain it is that he enjoyed great 
influence during her reign. This influence had important 
consequences, for he was the leader of the Pharisaic party, and 
succeeded in superseding the Sadducees, who had, in the main, 
been the dominating party hitherto. Simeon ben Shetach was a 
great champion of the specifically Pharisaic interpretation of the 
Law ; and it was largely due to him that the Pharisees became 
permanently the religious leaders of the people, and thus assumed 
the position which is so graphically reflected in the Gospels. He 
did much to restrict divorce, which had become very prevalent 
under the Sadducean regime. He appears also to have been a 
great religious educationist, for he laboured successfully for the 
establishment of schools in the larger cities, where the young 
might be instructed in the Bible. A story illustrating his 
character is told in one of the Midrashim (on Deut. iii. 5) to 
the following effect : " Once his pupils presented him with an ass 
which they had purchased from an Arab. On the neck of the 
animal they found a costly jewel ; whereupon they joyfully told 
their master that he might now cease toiling [he was by trade a 
linen-draper in a small way], since the proceeds from the jewel 
would make him wealthy. Simeon, however, replied that the 
Arab had sold them the ass only, and not the jewel. And he 
returned the gem to the Arab, who exclaimed, Praised be the 
God of Simeon ben Shetach ! " l 

The two best-known names, however, mentioned in this tractate 
are Hillel and Shammai. Both were, in all probability, alive at 
the time of the birth of Christ. As is well known, these two 
were the originators of two great schools of thought within 
Judaism. " It is notorious that the Shammaites were rigorous to 
excess in their requirements, and were the champions of a narrow 
and exclusive form of legal piety. Their attitude to the outside 
world was also harsh and unsympathetic. Their influence up to 
the catastrophe of A.D. 70 seems to have been in the ascendant ; 
but later the peace-loving and milder party of Hillel triumphed, 
and the Oral Law was revised in accordance with Hillelite views. 

1 TE xi. 358 b. 


It is probable, therefore, that in the time of Christ the question 
of ritual washing of hands, e.g., was a party one, and that our 
Lord strongly opposed the Shammaite view. In fact, the im 
pression is almost irresistible that the denunciations of the 
Pharisees occurring in the Gospels were directed primarily against 
a Shammaite section ; this would explain the apparently strange 
phenomenon that while, on the one hand, we read of these stern 
denunciations, it is, on the other hand, obvious to any impartial 
reader of the Gospels that a most friendly intercourse existed 
between Christ and the Pharisees." l 

Gamliel, whose name occurs after these two (he died in A.D. 
52), has a special interest for us because a speech of his is 
reported in Acts v. 34-40, and also because he was St. Paul s 
teacher (Acts xxii. 3). The description of him in Acts v. 34 
(" a doctor of the Law, had in honour of all the people ") fully 
bears out what we know of him from other sources. It should 
be added that some scholars maintain that the Gamliel referred 
to in Acts is the second of this name, the grandson of the former, 
who died about A.D. no. 

The name of Jochanan ben Zakkai is one of great importance 
in Jewry ; his exact date is uncertain, but since he was a pupil of 
Hillel his activity must have begun well before the destruction of 
Jerusalem. It is said of him (Rosh hashana 30 1)) that his life 
was divided into three periods ; in the first he was a merchant, in 
the second a student, and in the third a teacher. 2 Jochanan ben 
Zakkai s great claim to celebrity lies largely in the fact that he 
founded the Academy of Jamnia, and became its first president ; 
so that it was he who, after the destruction of Jerusalem, made 
Jamnia the official centre of Judaism. He was a great teacher ; 
one of his parables is worth quoting because it is so reminiscent 
of some of the Gospel parables ; in illustration of something that 
he was teaching he said : " It is like unto a king who invited his 
servants to a feast ; but he fixed no time (as to when the feast 
should begin). The wise ones (among his servants) arrayed 
themselves and sat down at the entrance of the king s palace. 

1 Oesterley and Box, The Religion and Worship of the Synagogue, pp. 129 f. 
(2nd ed.). 

2 JE vii. 214 a. 


They said : Though something may yet be wanting, the feast 
will soon be ready ; let us be prepared. The foolish ones (among 
his servants) went to their work. They said : No feast without 
preparation (i.e. there is plenty of time yet). Suddenly the king 
called his servants in to the feast. The wise ones entered in before 
him fully arrayed as they were. But the foolish ones entered in 
before him with soiled garments. Then did the king take 
pleasure in the wise servants, but he was wroth with the foolish 
ones. And he said : These who have arrayed themselves for the 
feast, let them sit down and eat and drink ; but those who did 
not array themselves for the feast, let them remain standing and 
watch the others. " l Rabbi Jochanan ben Zakkai had five pupils 
who all appear to have become distinguished teachers ; a number 
of their sayings are preserved in Pirke Aboth. 

Of the many other Rabbis mentioned in the tractate two more 
may be briefly referred to, one of somewhat later date. The first 
is Jekudah ha-Nasi (Judah the Prince), the celebrated compiler 
of the Mishnah, though the Mishnah as we now have it is a later 
recension of his work. He is known by the title of, and is 
spoken of as, " Rabbi " pure and simple. His date is approxi 
mately A.D. 136-217. And the second is Rabbi Akiba ; of this 
teacher it has been said that he, " to a degree beyond any other, 
deserves to be called the father of Rabbinical Judaism " ; 2 he lived 
from about the middle of the first century A.D. to about A.D. 130. 
He is said to have been connected with Bar Cochba in his revolt 
against the Roman power ; but this is doubtful ; what is certainly 
true is that he regarded Bar Cochba as the promised Messiah. 
He suffered death at the hands of the Romans, but whether this 
was because he disregarded, on religious grounds, the edicts of 
Hadrian, or whether it was due to political entanglements on his 
part, is uncertain. One saying of his is well worth quoting on 
account of its similarity with the words of Christ recorded in 
Luke xiv. 8 ff . : "Take thy place a few seats below thy rank 
until thou art bidden to take a higher place ; for it is better that 
they should say to thee, Come up higher, than that they should 
bid thee Go down lower. " 3 

1 T.B. Shabbath 1530, quoted by Fiebig, Die Gleichnissreden Jcsu, p. 18. 
a Ginsberg, JE i. 304 b. 3 Wayyikra Kabbah 1.5; quoted \nJE i. 305 b. 

IV. The Manuscripts. 

The text of Pirke Aboth is, with few exceptions, quite straight 
forward ; the various readings do not often affect the sense of a 
passage. In the following pages the Hebrew text used is that 
of Strack (see V.). A certain number of various readings will 
be found referred to in the notes ; these have been given where 
they have seemed to offer points of interest, though sometimes 
the interest is slight. For detailed critical notes the reader is 
referred to Taylor s edition, pp. (i)-(si), and Hoffmann s notes, as 
well as those of Strack. 

The more important manuscripts of Pirke Aboth are the 
following : 

Codex Berolin. Orient. 627. iyth century. (Pirke Aboth begins 
on fol. 1 7 If.) 

Codex Berolin. Orient. 569. (The text is wanting from iv. 23 to 
the end.) 

Codex Berolin. Orient. 629. iyth century. (Pirke Aboth begins 
on fol. 12 b.) 

Codex Berolin. Orient. 567. (Contains a Hebrew translation of 
the Arabic commentary on the Mishnah by Maimonides.) 

A MS. belonging to Dr. Chamizer, of Leipzig. (This is a Prayer 
Book containing the ritual of the Jews of Fez, in North 
Africa. Pirke Aboth is furnished with short explanatory 
notes in Arabic; it belongs to the iyth century.) 

A MS. in Cambridge University Library, Add. 470. (Taylor s text 
is taken from this MS., with the exception of Chapter VI., 
which is from an edition of the Ashkenazic Prayer Book. 

There are also several other Cambridge MSS., and some in the 
British Museum, enumerated by Taylor. 

V. Bibliography. 

Taylor, Sayings of the Jewish Fathers (2nd ed. 1897). 
Hoffmann, Mischnaiot, pp. 327-365 (1898). 
Strack, Die Spruche der Vdter (1901). 
Fiebig, Pirque* aboth (1906). 


Herford, Pirke Aboth, in Charles s " The Apocrypha and Pseud- 
epigrapha of the Old Testament," vol. ii. pp. 686-714 (1913). 

The three first of the above contain the Hebrew text. The 
following volumes, among others, have been utilised, and will be 
found helpful : 

Bacher, Die Agada der Tannaiten, 2 vols. (1884, 1890). 
Schechter, Aboth de Rabbi Nathan . . . (1887) ; cited as ^^ 
Weber, Juedische Theologie (2nd ed. 1897) ; cited as Weber. 
Schiirer, Geschichte des jiidischen Volkes im Z.eitalter Jesu Christi, 

3 vols. and Index volume (4th ed. 1901-9); cited as Schiirer. 
Jastrow, A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and 

Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic Literature, 2 vols. (1903) ; 

cited as Jastrow. 

Strack, Einlcitung in den Talmud (4th ed. 1908). 
Krauss, Talmudische Archaologie, 3 vols. (1910-12); cited as 

Oesterley, Ecclesiasticus (in the "Cambridge Bible for Schools 

and Colleges") (1912) ; cited as Sir. 

Abrahams s edition of the Jewish Prayer Book ; cited as Abrahams. 
Gerald Friedlander, Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer (1916). 
The Jewish Encyclopedia ; cited SLS/. 

It has not been thought necessary to specify the individual 
manuscripts in cases of various readings, since these are rarely 
of real importance. The student who desires details of these will 
find them in the editions of Taylor and Strack. 

The chapter divisions are those found in all printed editions, 
but the verse divisions, which vary in the different editions, are 
here arranged in accordance with the individual sayings. Taylor s 
verse divisions are, however, added in brackets, as his edition is 
the most important English one. In Chapter II. they are the 
same as in Taylor s edition. 

Words in brackets are not part of the text, but are added to 
make the sense clearer. 

Words in square brackets are later interpolations found in 
the text. 

The abbreviation T.B. denotes Talmud Babli (the Babylonian 



i. (i) MOSES received the Torah from Sinai, 1 and he delivered 2 
it to Joshua ; 3 and Joshua (delivered it) to the Elders ; 4 
and the Elders (delivered it) to the Prophets ; 5 and the 
Prophets delivered it to the men of the Great Synagogue. 6 

1 Moses received the Torah from Sinai : Torah (without the 
article) means here the entire body of divine laws, both written and 
oral. It includes the HE broir rmn (oral teaching) and the miDD (tradition 
[of the fathers]) (cp. Matt. xv. i ; Mark vii. 3), as well as the Penta 
teuch. See further Excursus I., in Taylor s edition. The words 
"from Sinai" mean, of course, from God on Sinai. received : The 
root Vip is that from which Kabbalah comes, i.e. the tradition contained 
in the post-Mosaic Scriptures (see Jastrow, s.v.}. 

- delivered : i.e. handed down (tradere], from the same root as 
rmco above ; cp. the " Masoretic " text of the Old Testament, i.e. the 
text which has been handed down ; this comes from the same root. 
cp. T) Trapddovis T&v 7rpeo-/3urpcoi/, Mark vii. 3. 

;! to Joshua: See Num. xxvii. 18-22 ; cp. Josh. i. 7-9. 

4 the Elders : u And Israel served the Lord all the days of Joshua, 
and all the days of the elders that outlived Joshua" (Josh. xxiv. 31) ; 
cp. Judges ii. 7. 

:> the Prophets : " Since the day that your fathers came forth out 
of the land of Egypt unto this clay, I have sent unto you all My 
servants the prophets" (Jer. vii. 25); cp. 2 Chron. xxxvi. 15, 16. 
AN adds "Judges" after "Elders," and " Haggai, Zechariah, and 
Malachi " after " the Prophets." 

() the Great Synagogue : The founding of this is ascribed by Jewish 
tradition to Ezra ; but it is very doubtful whether such an institution, 
at any rate in the traditional sense, ever existed. This is the earliest 
mention of it ; neither Philo nor Josephus alludes to it. In all 
probability the account contained in Neh. viii.-x. of the gathering 
together of all the people to hear the Law expounded is to be regarded 
as the historical basis on which later the myth of the Great Synagogue 
was built. 

These (men) said 1 three things: "Be deliberate in judge 
ment " ; 2 and " Raise up many disciples " : 3 and " Make 
a fence 4 to the Torah." 

2. (2) Simeon the Just 5 belonged to the last (of the members) 
of the Great Synagogue. He used to say: "On three 
things 6 the world stands: on the Torah, 7 on the 
(Temple-)service, 8 and on acts of love." 9 

1 These (men) said . . . : The three things said must not be 
regarded as having been formally uttered ; they probably express 
three of the most important sayings which had been handed down, 
and represented precepts regarding which there was a general con 
sensus among the earlier Scribes. The three sayings are doubtless 
very ancient, for they express what were the most important duties 
of the Scribes, judging and teaching the Law. Note the threefold 
sayings both here and in the verses which follow. 

2 Be deliberate in judgement: lit. " be waiting " or "slow"; the 
reference is to the pronouncing of judicial sentences ; like the other 
two sayings, this is not said to men in general, but it is one of the 
principles on which the men of the "Great Synagogue" (the imaginary 
forbear of the Sanhcdrin) acted. 

3 Raise up many disciples : for the purpose of handing down the 
traditions ; "disciples" = ^aOrjrai. 

4 a fence : " Impose additional restrictions so as to keep at a safe 
distance from forbidden ground " (Taylor). 

5 Simeon the Just: Probably Simeon II., high-priest circa B.C. 
226-198, is meant ; see Sir. 1. 1-24. Some authorities think that 
his grandfather, Simeon I., is meant ; he was high-priest about B.C. 
300; Josephus (Antiq. XII. ii. 4) speaks of him as the "Just ; or 
" Righteous," but the epithet would apply equally to his grandson, 
judging from the panegyric of Ben-Sira, as " Great among his brethren, 
and the glory of his people." 

6 On three things . . . : Le. the neglect of these three things would 
entail the downfall of the world. See verse 18, where the utterance 
by another Rabbi on the same subject is differently expressed. Strack 
aptly quotes Nedarim 32 (T.B.) : " Great is the Torah, for if it were 
not, Heaven and earth could not exist. ;; 

7 the Torah : with the art. here, and therefore referring to the 
Pentateuch, probably. 

8 the (Temple-)service : ^Abodah ; AN specifically mentions the 
worship of the Temple ; the word was only used in reference to prayer 
after the destruction of the Temple. Here it = j? Xarpt/a; cp. Rom. ix. 4. 

p acts of love : These refer to such things as sympathy, forbearance, 

3- (3) Antigonos, 1 a man of Socho, 2 received the tradition 2 from 
Simeon the Just. He used to say : " Be not like 4 slaves 
who minister unto (their) lord on condition of receiving 
a reward ; but be like unto slaves who minister unto 
(their) lord without (expecting) to receive a reward ; and 
let the fear of Heaven 5 be upon you." 

4. (4) Jose ben Joezer of Zeredah G and Jose ben Jochanan " of 

mercy, charitableness, etc., as distinct from almsgiving (rips = lit. 
" righteousness "). The three things on which the world stands thus 
deal with (i) God s relationship with man ; (2} man s relationship with 
God ; (3) man s relationship with his fellow-creatures. 

1 Antigonos : A Greek name ; nothing further is known of him ; 
other Greek names occur in iii. 10 and elsewhere. 

- a man of Socho: "a man of" (&#) implies that he was a man 
of distinction. Socho is mentioned as a city in Judaea, Josh. xv. 35 ; 
i Sam. xvii. I. 

;! received the tradition: See above under verse i, and cp. Sir. 
viii. 9 : " Reject not the tradition of the aged, which they heard from 
their fathers." 

4 Be not like . . . : cp. Luke xvii. 7-10. 

5 the fear of Heaven : i.e. of God ; with this avoidance of the 
direct mention of God cp. the frequent phrase in the Gospels " king 
dom of Heaven." 

u Jose . . . Zeredah : Jose is an abbreviation of Joseph ; he lived 
about 140 B.C. Zeredah is probably to be identified with Zarethan in 
Ephraim, in the hill-country above the Jordan valley ; see i Kings 
xi. 26 ; 2 Chron. iv. 17. 

7 In verses 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 two of the Fathers are always mentioned 
together ; these are called Ztigotli (" pairs "), a name given to the 
chief exponents of the Law prior to the time of the J\innaim (i.e. 
"Teachers"), whose period was from A.D. 10-220. These ten teachers 
all lived, therefore, in pre-Christian times. According to tradition, the 
Ztigoth always stood at the head of the Sanhedrin, the first-named 
having been the President, or Nasi ("Prince"), the other the Vice- 
President, or Ab Beth-Din (" Father of the Court ") ; this is stated in 
the tractate Chagigah ii. i (p m maw cnb rr:sn cwro vn o airann). This, 
however, cannot be regarded as historical, for the evidence both 
of Josephusand of the New Testament points to the high-priest as the 
head of the Sanhedrin ; see Antiq. XX. x. i (end): ". . . and the high- 
priests were entrusted with a dominion over the nation"; cp. also 
Contra Apion. ii. 23 (beginning), and Matt. xxvi. 3, 57; John xviii. 12 ft.; 

13 2 

Jerusalem received (the Torah) from them. 1 Jose ben 
Joezer of Zeredah said : " Let thy house be a meeting- 
place for the wise ; 2 and bedust thyself with the dust of 
their feet; 3 and drink in 4 their words with eagerness/ 5 

5. (5) Jose ben Jochanan of Jerusalem said: "Let thy house 
be opened wide"; and " Let the needy be thy family"; 6 
and "Talk not overmuch with women." 7 

Acts v. I7ff.; vii. I ; ix. I, 2 ; xxii. 5 ; xxiii. 2, 4; xxiv. I. It is not until 
post-Mishnic times that we find A r asi and Ab Beth-Din used in this 
way ; Nasi is otherwise always used in reference to a ruling prince 
or even king ; and the very name Ab Beth-Din implies, not a sub 
ordinate position, but that of head over the " House of the Court," 
which, as a matter of fact, was the Sanhedrin. 

1 from them: Another reading, but not so well attested, is "from 
him," i.e. Antigonos, in the preceding verse ; but it may be assumed 
that Antigonos had pupils, to whom the " from them " would refer. 
This reading implies that "a name or names are missing between 
Antigonos and the first pair. This favours the authenticity of the list; 
if it had been fictitious, names would have been supplied" (Herford). 

- the wise : The wise men, or ha-Chakamim\ this was the technical 
term applied to those learned in the Law. Asa special class they are 
mentioned alongside of priests and prophets in Jer. xviii. 18 (cp. 
Matt, xxiii. 34). They are the a-ufoi of the New Testament ; cp. 
Matt. xi. 25 ; Rom. i. 14 ; i Cor. i. 19, 20. 

:; bedust thyself. . . feet: Both the teacher (cp. Matt. xxvi. 55) 
and his listeners (cp. Luke ii. 46) sat on the ground as a rule ; hence 
the technical word Yeshibah (lit. "sitting") given to an academy or 
house of learning. In Acts xxii. 3 the Apostle says he was brought up 
"at the feet of Gamaliel, instructed according to the strict manner of 
the law of our fathers/ 

4 drink in . . .: cp. the Midrash Si/re 84 : "As water giveth life 
to the world, so do the words of the Torah give life to the world "; and 
Shir ha-Shirim i. 2 : "As water refresheth the body, so doth the Torah 
refresh the soul." See also John iv. 14 ; vii. 38. 

5 eagerness : lit. " thirstiness." 

thy family: lit. "the children of thy house"; cp. Luke xiv. 12-14. 

7 Talk not overmuch : lit. " Multiply not talk"; in Bibl. Hebr. the 

word (rrc) means "meditation" in a good sense, communing with 

God (Ps. civ. 34) ; though possibly it is used in the sense of " talk" in 
2 Kings ix. n. In neo-Hebr. the usual meaning is "talk" or "con- 

(6) T [(Regarding) his own wife, they said 2 this ; how 

much more 3 (regarding) his neighbour s wife.] 
[Wherefore the wise men said : " Every time a man 
talks overmuch with women he brings evil upon 
himself, and he escapes from (studying) the 
words of Torah, and his end is (that) he in 
herits Gehinnom." 4 ] 

6. 5 (7) Joshua ben Perachiah and Nittai the Arbelite received (the 
Torah) from them. 6 Joshua ben Perachiah said : " Get 

versation," sometimes in the sense of "whisper"; with this latter cp. 
Is. xxix. 4. with women : lit. " with the woman," so that the refer 
ence might apply simply to a man s wife so far as the language is con 
cerned. This is, however, improbable, for such a direction would be 
entirely uncalled for ; it is better to regard the definite article as 
intended to express the generic notion ; cp. John iv. 27. 

1 The words in square brackets are two marginal notes added by 
some later hand ; they occur, however, in all the MSS., but do not 
figure in AN. 

2 they said : i.e. the wise men in general. 

:! how much more: lit. "light and heavy"; -vcnm ?p is a Talmudic 

phrase for expressing a conclusion a minori ad majus ; it is equivalent 
to the Biblical ^ t>, e.g. Prov. xi. 31 : " Behold, the righteous shall be 

recompensed on earth ; how much Diore (lit. also [it is] that) the 
wicked and the sinner ! " cp. TTOO-CO ^aXXoi/ in Matt. x. 25. 

4 Every time . . . Gehinnom : These words, slightly altered, are 
quoted from Sir. ix. 9 (Hebrew). he brings: lit. "he occasions." 
inherits : Another reading is "goes down," which is more usual in this 
connexion. Gehinnom: cp. Jos. xv. 8 (c:n >) ; Matt, xxiii. 15 (vibi> 

yeevrjs) , the opposite of jii fs, " the Garden of Eden." 

The two teachers mentioned in this verse lived at the end of the 
second century B.C. In the Talmud (Sorah 47 <i) a pupil of Joshua 
ben P. is referred to who, in the opinion of some scholars, was believed 
to be Christ (Krauss, Das Leben Jesu, p. 182 [1902]). Nittai (another 
reading is Matthai) is an abbreviated form of Nethaniah (cp. Jochai 
shortened from Jochanan). Arbela (= Beth-Arbel in Hos. x. 14) is in 
Galilee, north-west of Tiberias ; see r Mace. ix. i ; the modern name 
is Irbid. 

6 from them : i.e. the pair of teachers mentioned in the preceding 

thee a teacher " ; l and " Get possession of a com 
panion " ; 2 and " Judge every man favourably." 3 

7. (8) Nittai the Arbelite said: "Keep thy distance from an evil 

neighbour " ; and " Associate not with a wicked man " ; 
and " Despair not 4 of (divine) retribution." 

8. (9) Judah ben Tabai 5 and Simeon ben Shetach 5 received 

(the Torah) from them. Judah ben Tabai said: "Be not" 
as those who 7 seek to influence the judges; and when 

1 a teacher : lit. " a Rab." 

2 a companion: Chabir\ the word came to be used especially of 
men of learning as opposed to the unlearned mass, *"aui ha-arctz. The 
Rabbis often urged the advantage of companionship in study ; in 
Eccles. iv. 9 it is said: "Two are better than one, because they have a 
good reward for their labour." See iii. 3 below, and cp. Matt, xviii. 20. 
In AN viii. 3 it is said that a man should, if necessary, pay someone 
so that he may have a companion when studying the Law. 

3 Judge every. . .: lit. "according to the scale of virtue"; the 
picture is that of scales, and the Rabbi teaches that in judging" a man 
it should be done on the assumption that the scale in which his virtue 
rests is the heavier : cp. Matt. v. 7 : " Blessed are the merciful." 

4 Despair not : Perhaps more literally, "Do not give up the thought 
of." What was evidently in the writer s mind was a warning against 
some such attitude as that represented in Ps. Ixxiii. 12, 13 ; " Behold, 
these are the wicked ; and being alway at ease, they increase in 
riches. Surely in vain have I cleansed my heart and washed my 
hands in innocency." 

5 Tabai: Abbreviated form of Tobiah ; little is known of him ; he 
lived in the reign of Alexander Janna>us (B.C. 103-76). Far more 
important was Simeon b. Shetach, for it was largely owing to him that 
the Pharisaic party gained permanent ascendancy in the reign of 
Alexandra (Salome), B.C. 76-67. He is stated to have been the brother 
of Salome (T.B. Berakhoth 48 ) ; hence his influence at court both 
during her reign and that of her husband. Two special reforms are 
connected with the name of Simeon b. Shetach, viz. the restriction 
of divorces, which had become very common, and the establishment 
of schools for the education of the young. 

Be not : lit. " Make not thyself." 

" as those who . . .: lit. "as those prepare . . ." The reference is 
to those who sought to bias the judge before the case came into court. 

the litigants are standing before thee regard them as 
guilty ; 1 but when they have been dismissed from thy 
presence regard them as innocent, 2 since they have 
received their sentence." 3 

9. (10) Simeon ben Shetach said: "Examine the witnesses 
thoroughly; 4 and be cautious 5 with thy words lest 6 from 
them they learn to bear false witness." 7 

10. (u) Shemaiah s and Abtalion received (the Law) from them. 
Shemaiah said : "Love labour" : 9 and "Hate domineer- 

1 guilty : lit. " wicked," which of course comes to the same thing. 
In Jewish law the litigants were regarded by the judge as guilty until 
proved innocent. English law, as is well known, is the exact reverse 
of this. 

2 innocent : When wrong has been atoned for, and the law satisfied, 
the guilt must be regarded as having been removed. 

3 their sentence : lit. "judgement upon themselves." 

4 Examine . ... thoroughly : lit. " Be redundant in examining." It 
is told in the Jerusalem Talmud (Sanhedrin vi. 23^) that a son of 
Simeon s was once unjustly condemned to die through the inadequate 
examination of witnesses ; he suffered death. Simeon s saying gains 
in significance in the light of this. 

5 cautious : cp. Ezra iv. 22. The word occurs several times in our 
book, e.g. ii. 10, 13. 

lest : N^T, formed from tj and NO (= rip); cp. i. 1 1. The meaning 
of the saying is that if a judge speaks too freely during a trial he 
may reveal his own opinion on questions at issue, in which case the 
witnesses might be tempted to frame their answers in accordance 
with this. 

7 to bear false witness : lit. "to lie"; but the word is often used 
in connexion with bearing false witness. 

8 Shemaiah : According to Josephus (Antiq. xv. i. i) the pupil 
of Abtalion; these two are probably the Sa/xeas and IIoAXtW mentioned 
by him (see also xv. x. 4). They both lived in the latter half of the 
first century B.C. 

9 Love labour: i.e. a trade; cp. T.B. Kiddushin 29 a: "He who 
does not teach his son a handiwork is as though he taught him theft." 
On the subject of the Rabbinical teaching on the need of labour see 
Franz Delitzsch,/<?w/jA Artisan Life in the Time of Christ (1902). For 
the New Testament teaching see Acts xviii. 3 ; xx. 34 ; i Cor. iv. 12 ; 
Eph. iv. 28 ; i Thess. ii. 19 ; 2 Thess. iii. 8. 

8 i 

ing " ; l and " Make not thyself known 2 to those in 
authority." 3 

n. 4 (12) Abtalion said: "Ye wise men, be cautious in your words, 
lest ye be guilty of the sin 5 (which will bring about) exile, 
and ye be exiled 6 to a place of evil waters, 7 and the 

1 Hate domineering: Perhaps better "arrogance." The word 
rabbanuth is used in three senses in Rabbinical writings : (i) of the 
powers that be, as, e.g, in the T.B. Pesachim 87^: "Woe to the 
(royal) authority (rabbanuth}, for it buries its holders, and there is not 
one prophet that did not outlive four kings"; (2) in the more general 
sense of " superiority " or "arrogance"; (3) for expressing the status 
of a Rabbi (cp. Matt, xxiii. 8) ; this usage of the word is later. It 
is in the sense of the second of these that the word is here used ; 
cp. Rom. xii. 16 : "Set not your mind on high things, but condescend 
to things that are lowly. Be not wise in your own conceits." 

- Make not thyself known . . .: The form of the word here (hith- 
pacl} has the sense of forcing oneself upon the notice of someone ; cp. 
Prov. xxv. 6 : "Put not thyself forward in the presence of the king"; 
cp. Sir. vii. 5, 6. The words are, in effect, an exhortation to be 

:j authority: rmih, from the root rnzh, connected with M?,<O "head"; 
see further the note on iii. 22. 

4 The meaning of this verse is as follows : If the wise men (Chaka- 
niim\ who are the responsible teachers of the people, are not careful 
in their teaching, they will be in danger of the sin of heretical teaching ; 
the punishment for this is exile ; and exile is no place for the pure 
teaching of the Law, but one of evil waters, i.e. heretical teaching ; but 
worse than this, if the disciples imbibe heretical teaching, it will mean 
for them spiritual death ; and it will then be seen that God has been 

5 sin : rain (from the same root as the word translated " guilty " 

above) means lit. "debt" (cp. o^a X^o in the Lord s Prayer, 

" ye be exiled : Josephus (Bell. Jud. i. v. 2), in speaking of the 
power of the Pharisees during the reign of Alexandra, says : ". . . they 
banished and recalled whom they pleased ; they bound and loosed at 
their pleasure." 

7 evil waters : cmn nro ; this omission of the article before the 
noun is frequent in the Mishnah. For this figurative meaning of 
water cp. T.B. Chagigah 3*7 : "we drink thy water," i.e. "we assimilate 
thy teaching." cp. John iv. 14 ; vii. 37 ; i Cor. iii. 6, 

disciples l that come after you drink and die, 2 and it be 
found that the name of Heaven 3 has been profaned." 

12. (13) Hillel and Shammai 4 received (the Law) from them. Hillcl 
said : " Be of the disciples of Aaron, 5 loving peace and 6 

1 the disciples . . . : In T.B. Makkoth io<7 it is said that when a 
teacher is sent into exile his disciples have to go with him. 

- die : For the thought cp. Rom. vii. 9, 10. 

:} Heaven : i.e. God ; cp. "kingdom of Heaven"; see also Rom. ii. 24. 
The last sentence of this verse, "and it be found . . .," does not occur 
in AN. 

4 The period of HilleFs activity was during the reign of Herod the 
Great and after, roughly from B.C. 3O-A.D. 10 ; the date of his death 
is not known. He was known as Hillel ha-Zdkcn, "the Elder," and 
was also called " the Babylonian," as he was a Babylonian by birth. 
It has been held that he was Christ s teacher, but no definite proof of 
this exists. On the other hand, that he must have been one of the 
"doctors" (teachers) in the Temple (Luke ii. 46) scarcely admits of 
doubt. "In the memory of posterity Hillel lived, on the one hand, as 
the scholar who made the whole contents of the traditional law his 
own (Sofenm xvi. 9), who, in opposition to his colleague, Shammai, 
generally advocated milder interpretations of the Halakah, and whose 
disciples as a house that is, as Hillel s school stood in like 
opposition to Shammai s disciples. On the other hand, he was known 
as the saint and the sage who, in his private life and in his dealings 
with men, practised the high virtues of morality and resignation, just 
as he taught them in his maxims with unexcelled brevity and earnest 
ness" (Bacher, \\\JE vi. 397<). Shammai, Hillel s contemporary, was 
also called ha-Zaken ; he was a native of Palestine. Various sayings 
and acts of his are recorded showing his extreme strictness in the 
observance of the Law. The controversies between the " houses " 
of Hillel and Shammai continued for nearly a century. 

:> Be of . . . Aaron: The unclassical construction should be noticed, 
as it often occurs in the Mishnah. PHNT TO YTDbrra, ?-^- the genitive is 
not expressed by the construct state, but by ^j preceded bya possessive 
pronoun ; see the same thing in ii. 2 : rrxj 1:2 >?^p2 frv 

G loving peace and...: cp. Rom. xiv. 19; Heb. xii. 14; and 
especially I Pet. iii. ii in the quotation from Ps. xxxiv. 12 ff. ; see also 
Matt. v. 9. The mention of peace in connexion with Aaron often 
occurs in Rabbinical writings, e.g. in AN w. it is said that Aaron went 
about as a peacemaker. 


following after peace, loving men l and bringing them 
nigh 2 unto the Law." 

i3- 3 (14) He used to say: " He that exalts 4 his name destroys his 
name; he who increases not 5 decreases"; 6 and "He 
who learns not 7 deserves death " ; 8 and " He who makes 
gain 9 out of the Crown 10 shall perish." 

1 men : rrna, lit. "creation," "formation," from the root N-Q ; cp. the 
phrase in^ pViy te "the creation of the world" (Bereshith Rabba vii. 

end); equivalent to KTIO-IS ; cp. Mark xvi. 15 : Krjpvt-are TO euyyeAtoi> navy 
TV Kria-ei ; see also Rom. i. 25 ; viii. 19 ; Col. i. 15. In these and other 
N.T. passages the word is in the sing., while the Hebr. before is plur., 
but it is usually found in the sing, in Rabbinical literature; see Jastrow, 
s.v. It includes humanity as a whole, which is important from the 
words which follow. 

2 bringing them nigh . . .: Hillel here contemplates the conversion 
of Centiles to Judaism. "The Jewish propaganda throughout the 
Empire was primarily the proclamation of the one and only God, of 
His moral Law, and of His judgement; to this everything else became 
secondary. The object in many cases might be pure proselytism 
(Matt, xxiii. 15), but Judaism was quite in earnest in overthrowing 
dumb idols and inducing pagans to recognise their Creator and Judge, 
for in this the honour of the God of Israel was concerned" (Harnack, 
77ie Mission and Expansion of Christianity, i. 10 [1908]). 

3 This verse is in Aramaic. 

4 He that exalts . . . : lit. " He that stretches out a name destroys 
a name"; the thought is parallel to Matt, xxiii. 12 : "Whosoever shall 
exalt himself shall be humbled"; cp. Prov. xxix. 23 ; Is. ii. 17. This 
meaning of the word 1^3 is rare ; its ordinary use is in reference to 
things being stretched out or prolonged. 

5 he who increases not . . . : i.e. he who does not increase in know 
ledge loses knowledge ; one cannot remain stationary here. In the 
Aramaic there is a word-play: ^ FjTpin (mosif yesiif]\ cp. Matt. xiii. 12. 

decreases : lit. " ceases," in the sense of coming to an end, i.e. 
even the knowledge hitherto gained will disappear. 

7 learns not: The word ^ means lit. "to get accustomed" to 

something by use ; hence, by going over a thing again and again, to learn. 

8 deserves death: lit. "worthy of death" = ei/o^os Qavdrov, Matt, 
xxvi. 66. 

9 He who makes gain : lit. " He who serves himself." 

10 the Crown : i.e. the Law ; cp. iv. 17 : "the crown of the Torah," 

1 I 

14. 1 (15) He used to say : "If I am not for myself, who is for 
me ? And if I am for myself (only), 2 what am I ? And 
if not now, when ? " 

15. (16) Shammai 3 said: "Make 1 thy (study of the) Torah a 
fixed habit" ; "Say little and do much" ; and " Receive 
every man with a pleasant face." 3 

i6. ; (17) Rabban 7 Gamliel said: "Get s thee a teacher"; and 

The passage means that the teaching of the Law must be done for the 
love of it, and not for payment ; cp. \ Cor. ix. 18, and see also 
Is. Iv. 1-3 ; James i. 12 : "the crown of life," for the Torah gives life 
(vi. 7). 

1 This verse is in Hebrew again. The sentences are very pregnant 
and somewhat difficult, but the meaning is : If I do not look after 
myself, who else will ? Yet, if I only look after myself, what am I but 
a contemptible creature ! I must look after others, too ; and I must 
do this now, or the opportunity will go for ever. The saying offers a 
good example of the sense of proportion so often to be found in the 
teaching of the ancient Rabbis. 

- if I am for myself (only) . . .: cp. Sir. xxxi. 15 : "Honour thy 
neighbour as thyself"; Matt. vii. 12. 

3 Shammai : Abbreviated from Shemaiah. Whenever he or his 
" house "is mentioned in Rabbinical writings it is, as a rule, to note his 
teaching as opposed to that of Hillel or his "house." 

4 Make . . .: So necessary was the habit of a regular fixed time for 
the study of the Law every day held to be that it was believed that 
God Himself set the example, e.g. in T.B. Abodah Zara 3 /; it is said : 
" There are twelve hours in the day ; during the first three the Holy 
One sits down and occupies Himself with the Torah"; much the 
same is said in the Jerusalem Targum to Deut. xxxii. 4 and in the 
Midrash Bereshith Rabba xlix. 

with a pleasant face : lit. " with the look of a pleasant face." 
See Note at end of Chapter I., p. 14. 

7 Rabban : This form of the title ("our master") is of greater honour 
than Rabbi ("my master"), and Rabbi is a more honorific title than 
Rab ("master"); but, as it is said, the greatest honour of all is to 
have a name without any title at all. 

8 Get . . .: The identical saying is recorded of Joshua ben Perachiah 
in verse 6. 

12 I 

"Put far from thee doubt ; ] and "Be not constantly 2 
tithing by guesswork." 3 

17. (18) Simeon, his son, 4 said : "All my days have I grown up 

1 Put far from thee doubt : lit. u Remove thyself from doubt. 
Taylor explains this as meaning that whatever doubts a man may 
have they should be resolved by authority, not merely upon his own 
judgement, taking the words in close connexion with the preceding 
phrase; but the word for "doubt," pro, seems generally to refer to 

doubts regarding legal requirements ; it is used, e.g., of a doubt as to 
whether a man has eaten forbidden fat or not, as to whether it was the 
legal quantity, as to whether a man had committed a sin requiring a 
sacrifice, etc. (see Jastrow, j.z/.) ; the meaning of the phrase would, 
therefore, rather seem to be that a man should not be hypersensitive 
and worry his head about legal minutio ; it is in opposition to the 
attitude described in Matt, xxiii. 16-26, and admirably illustrates the 
point of view of the Hillelite type of Pharisee as opposed to the 
Shammaite type denounced in the Gospels. 

* Be not constantly . . .: lit. "Tithe not much by estimation"; the 
meaning is that if a man merely makes an estimate, instead of an 
exact measurement, of whatever it may be that he gives the tithe, 
he is apt to estimate it in his own favour ; as Taylor well puts it : 
" Leave as little scope as possible for personal bias and the tempta 
tions of self-interest." cp. the saying : " He that is faithful in a very 
little is faithful also in much ; and he that is unrighteous in a very 
little is unrighteous also in much" (Luke xvi. 10). 

:! by guesswork : reading nvrai } adverb, lit. "by guesswork"; others 
point nrroiN ("estimates") as plur. of TDIM ; the former is preferable. 
The root TCN means " to conjecture." 

4 Simeon, his son: The obvious thing is to take this Simeon as 
being the son of Gamliel ; but Herford, in an interesting note, takes 
another view, which is possibly the right one. He says: "A much 
more probable explanation is that verses 16, 17 have been transposed, 
and that the Simeon of verse 17 is the son of Hillel and father of 
Gamaliel. In favour of this view is the fact that this Simeon is not 
called Rabban, as he would have been if he had succeeded Gamaliel. 
Also, that Simeon the son of Hillel was so unimportant that he is only 
once mentioned in the Talmud ; this is in keeping with the saying 
mentioned in verse 17, which is the utterance of a shy, retiring man. 
Also, in verse 18, there is Rabban Simeon b. Gamaliel, i.e. the man to 
whom verse 17 is commonly supposed to refer, viz. the Simeon who 
was one of the leading men during the siege of Jerusalem (Josephus, 

I 13 

amongst the wise, 1 and I have not found aught good for 
man 2 but silence " ; 3 and " Not the study 4 (of the Law), 
but the carrying-out (of it) is the essential thing" ; 5 and 
" Whoso multiplies words occasions 6 sin." 

18. (19) Rabban Simeon 7 ben Gamliel said: "On three things 
doth the world stand : 8 on judgement, 9 on truth, and on 

BelL Jitd. IV. iii. 9). The commentators, however, having already 
assigned verse 17 to him, are obliged to assign verse 18 to a younger 
Simeon b. Gamaliel, in the middle of the second century, who is here 
quite out of place. The identification I propose makes the arrangement 
simple and natural ; it brings the line of Hillel down to the year of the 
siege, and stops there, in accordance with the remark in the Talmud 
(T.B. Shabbath 15^), that the order of succession was : Hillel, Simeon, 
Gamaliel, Simeon ; of whom it is said that the four held office for a 
hundred years prior to the destruction of the Temple." See the table 
uf the descent from Hillel on p. 14. The fact that by transposing 
verses 16, 17 the words " Simeon, his son ; seem to make him the son 
of Shammai need not cause difficulty ; for, although this group of 
verses begins (verse 12) " Hillel and Shammai," it is quite obvious that 
Hillel is the foremost personality, and it is his genealogy which is given. 

1 the wise : Again the Chakamim. 

2 man : The word here used, ma (guf\ means, in this connexion, 
"body," " person," or "self" (cp. iv. 6); therefore the rendering "man " 
is justified ; but elsewhere in Rabbinical writings it is used in various 
and very different meanings, e.g. of personal duty, of the essence, or 
integral part, of a thing ; it also has the special and peculiar meaning 
of a supposed storehouse of souls in Heaven, the " Guf. r 

3 ... silence : cp. iii. 13 ; Prov. xvii. 28 ; Sir. v. n, 13 ; xvii. 28 ; 
xviii. 19 ; xx. 5-8 ; James i. 19. 

4 Not the study . . .: cp. James i. 22 ff. The word for " study" is 
midrash ; cp. Beth lia-Midrash, " House of Study " (i.e. of the Law), 
in v. 14. 

5 the essential thing: lit. "root" (ikkar\ then what is essential ; 
cp. the Thirteen Principles (Ikkarim] of the Faith, of Maimonides. 

occasions : lit. "causes to come"; cp. Prov. x. 19; James iii. 5 ff. 

7 Kabban Simeon : See note on verse 17. 

8 doth the world stand : The word c>p means "enduring"; another 

reading is -rail" (" standing," usually in the more material sense), but 
this reading is not well attested. 

9 judgement: p (din} has a various use; here it means "justice," 

[As it is said: 1 "Truth and judgement of peace 
judge ye in your gates."] 

NOTE ON I. i6-II. 4. 

The passage i. i6-ii. 4 evidently did not belong to the original 
form of our book, for while verses 12-15 deal with the sayings of 
Hillel and Shammai, which are taken up again in ii. 5, the intervening 
passage speaks of teachers who lived during the period from the 
beginning of the Christian era right up to the latter half of the third 
century. 1 he intention of the redactor was evidently to continue the 
line of Hillel s descendants, though he only mentions the four most 
important. It is difficult to say whether, in the verse before us, the 
Gamliel mentioned is the first or second of the name ; the authorities 
differ. The following table of Hillel s descendants will show that it is 
not easy to decide the question : 

Hillel ; main activity B.C. 3O-A.U. 10. 

Simeon I., his son. 

Gamliel I., his grandson ; first half of first century. 

Simeon II., son of Gamliel I.; main activity 50-70. 

Gamliel II., son of Simeon II.; main activity 90-110. 

Simeon III., son of Gamliel II. 

Judah ha-Nasi, son of Simeon III.; died 220 (circa}. 

Gamliel III., son of Judah ha-Nasi ; died 250 (circa}. 
We are inclined to regard the Gamliel mentioned in the verse before 
us as ihejfrst of the name ; and for this reason, that after the sayings 
of Hillel (taken up again in ii. 5) are completed in ii. 8, the next 
teacher to be mentioned is Jochanan ben Zakkai, whose main activity 
was during the second half of the first century, i.e. chronologically he 
should come after the Simeon mentioned in i. 18, 19 (see further the 
note on verse 17;. It seems more likely, therefore, that the Gamliel 
mentioned before Jochanan ben Zakkai should be the first rather than 
the second of the name. If this is so, then the Gamliel (the spelling 
Gamaliel comes from the Greek form) here mentioned is the one 
spoken of in Acts v. 34 as "a doctor of the law, had in honour of all 

the right result of judgement; in the O.T. it is synonymous with ccc?2 

1 As it is said . . .: A redactor s addition, omitted in some MSS. 
"tt2M2: (" as it is said") is one of the regular formulas in Rabbinical 

writings for introducing quotations from the O.T. The quotation here 
is from Zech. viii. 16. 

l-Il 15 

the people," at whose feet St. Paul was " instructed according to the 
strict manner of the law of our fathers" (Acts xxii. 3). The way in 
which he is here spoken of fully accords with all that is told of him in 
Rabbinical literature ; he is said to have done more than any other in 
establishing and upholding the honour in which the "house of Hillel" 
was held. He was the first to have the honorific title " Kabban " 
prefixed to his name, and was also, like Hillel, called ha-ZTiktn. 


RABBI l said : " Which is the right way 2 that a man should 
choose out 3 for himself? (He should choose out) all 
that is an honour to him who does it, 4 and that (brings) 5 
him honour from men " ; and " Be careful in (the ob 
servance of) a precept 6 of minor importance 7 as with 

1 Rabbi : While every recognised teacher had the title " Rabbi " 
prefixed to his name, "Rabbi" pure and simple, as though a proper 
name, was accorded to Judah ha-Nasi ("the Prince"). He was also 
called ha-Kadosh, "the holy." He was born circa 140 A.D., and died 
in 219 or 220. He is celebrated as the chief redactor of the Mishnah, 
though since his day further additions have been made, as, e.g., 
the sayings in this verse. 

2 the right way: TC> means also "straight," and it is used of a 
believer who is "firm" in his faith (Midrash Tchillim to Ps. xi. 7). 
For the thought of the " way " in the sense of manner of life, cp. 
Acts xviii. 26 ; xix. 9, 23 ; xxiv. 14 ; see also Matt. vii. 13, 14. 

:; choose out : -iin = eligere. 

4 All that is . . . does it: The "it" refers to "way"; but the 
phrase -pi rrirs 1 (" to do a way") is very unusual. Isaac Bar Shelomoh, 
the author of a commentary on Pirke AbotJi, suggests the emendation 
^rrirS u to his Maker" (Taylor); so, too, Rabbi Israel of Toledo 

(Herford). The suggestion is attractive, but it does not altogether fall 
in with the spirit of the verse. Moreover, it is not as though the actual 
phrase yn mrr occurs ; and rre is used in a very wide way. 

5 and that (brings) . . .: lit. "and honour to him from men"; 
cp. Phil. iv. 8. 

15 precept : rn^ (mttzvaJt), the regular word for " legal precept." 

7 of minor importance : lit. "light." 

1 6 n 

(one that is) weighty, for thou knowest not 1 (concerning) 
the giving of rewards for precepts "; and " Reckon the 
loss (involved in the fulfilling) of a precept against its 
reward, and the advantage 2 (gained by the committing) 
of a sin against its penalty " ; 3 and " Keep in mind three 
things, and thou wilt not come into the power of sin ; 4 
know what (there is) 5 above thee : a seeing eye, and a 
hearing ear, and all thy works written in a book." 7 

2. Rabban Gamliel, 8 the son of Rabbi 9 Judah ha-Nasi, said: 
" Excellent 10 is Torah-study together with (some) worldly 
occupation, 11 for the labour 12 in both of them causes 

1 for thou knowest not . . .: i.e. thou knowest not how great the 
reward may be for the fulfilling of any given precept ; cp. Matt. V T . 19. 
- advantage : lit. reward"; the same word in Hebr. as that just used. 

3 penalty: lit. "loss"; again the same word in Hebr. as that just 
used ; but in both these cases the sense is brought out more clearly 
in English by using different words. 

4 Keep in mind ... of sin : The same words as in iii. i. into the 
power of sin: lit. "into the hands of sin," rni? n^ ; for this use cp. 
Ps. cxli. 9. . . . ne n*p :"y?sS " Keep me from the hands of the snare . . ." 

> know what (there is): In one MS. "what" is omitted in order 
to make clearer what the " three things ; are, otherwise the words 
"know what (there is) above thee" would read like the first of them ; 
tli is certainly makes the text run smoother. 

{i a seeing eye. . .: cp. Ps. xxxiii. 13-15 ; xxxiv. 15, 16 (Hebr. 
1 6, 17) ; i Pet. iii. 12. 

7 written in a book : cp. Mai. iii. 16 ; Dan. vii. 10 ; Rev. xx. 12. 

8 Eabban Gamliel: i.e. Gamliel III.; see the table on p. 14; 
scarcely anything is known of him beyond one or two notices of him 
in the Tosephta and Boraitha. 

<J the son of Rabbi : For the construction see note 5, p. 9. 
1(1 excellent : lit. " comely." 

11 worldly occupation: lit. "the way of the earth" (p* -pi); cp. 
iii. 24. The phrase is used in various senses ; see Gen. xix. 31 ; 
Josh, xxiii. 14 ; i Kings ii. 2 ; it also means the way of behaviour 
among one s fellow-creatures ; here, as often elsewhere, it means 
worldly occupation, whether with head or hand, as opposed to strictly 
religious activity. 

12 the labour . . .: i.e. when a man is busy with these things tempta 
tion keeps from him, and thoughts of sin do not occur. 

I 17 

sin to be forgotten ; and all Torah (-study) without 
(worldly) labour ends in failure, 1 and brings sin (in its 
train). And let all who labour- with the congregation 3 
labour with them 4 for the Name of Heaven; 5 for the 
merit of their fathers 6 sustains them, and their righteous 
ness 7 stands for ever. And (as for) you, 8 I will reckon 9 
unto you reward 10 as though ye had done it." 

3. 11 " Be ye cautious regarding those in authority, for they permit 
not n man to draw nigh unto them but for their own 
purpose. They appear to be friends when it suits them,, 
but do not help a man in time of his need." 

1 ends in failure: lit. "its end is in failure/ Contrast with the 
teaching given in this verse Hen-Sira s ideas on the subject ; he sees 
the need of the craftsman and the labourer, but considers their lot an 
unhappy one as compared with him who can give his whole time to 
the study of the Law ; see Sir. xxxviii. 24-xxxix. 11. 

2 labour : boy is often used of labouring at the study of the Law ; here, 
however, it refers to the carrying-out of the affairs of the Synagogue 
congregation, such as the administration of charily, etc. 

:! the congregation: -nrj (zibbur\ lit. "a heap"; in later usage the 

technical term for the Synagogue congregation. 

4 with them : The plur. refers to the members of the congre 

5 for the Name of Heaven : It is an exhortation to disinterested 
work ; cp. Rom. xv. 7 : "... to the glory of Gocl. ; 

(i the merit of their fathers : The doctrine of Zecuth A both 
(" Merit of the Fathers ) plays an important part in Jewish theology ; 
it is often emphasised in the Targums as well as in the later literature ; 
cp. Rom. xi. 28 : " they are beloved for the father s sake." The 
efficacy of this merit acts upon later generations; see the last sentence 
of this verse. See further Weber, pp. 292-297. 

7 their righteousness : i.e. that of the fathers. 

x (as for) you : i.e. "all who labour for the congregation." 

<J I will reckon . . .: The words are put into the mouth of God ; 
for the thought cp. Rom. iv. 3 : "... it was reckoned unto him for 

10 reward: Some MSS. add "plenteous." 

11 With this verse cp. Ps. cxlvi. 3 : " Put not your trust in princes, 
nor in any son of man, in whom is no help." 


18 ii 

4. He used 1 to say : " Do His will 2 as (if it were) thy will, that 

He may do thy will as (if it were) His will. Annihilate 3 
thy will before His will, that He may annihilate the will 
of others 4 before thy will." 

5. Hillel 5 said : " Separate thyself not 6 from the congregation, 

and trust not thyself 7 until the day of thy death " ; and 
"Judge not 8 thy neighbour until thou comest into his 
place " ; and " Say not (that) a thing which cannot be 
understood 9 (at first) will be understood (eventually) " ; 

1 He used . . . : i.e. Rabban Gamliel III. 

2 His will : i.e. God s will. With the general thought of the 
sentence cp. Matt. xii. 50 ; John vii. 7. 

3 annihilate : The root ban means lit. " to be hollow," " void." 

4 the will of others : i.e. of adversaries. 

5 Hillel : In all probability the great Hillel is meant (i. 12), as with 
verse 5 the sequence is taken up again which was broken by the 
insertion of i. lo-ii 4. 

Separate thyself not . . .: An exhortation similar to that which 
occurs in Hebr. x. 25: "not forsaking the assembling of ourselves 
together, as the custom of some is." Evidence is not wanting, however, 
of the existence of unorthodox gatherings. 

7 trust not thyself. . .: lit. "believe not in thyself"; man requires 
the help that is afforded by the sense of corporate unity ; cp. i Cor. 
ix. 27 ; x. 12. According to Jewish teaching, death effected an atone 
ment for all sin ; cp. the words in the Jewish Liturgy at the "Confession 
on a Death-bed" : " O may my death be an atonement for all my sins, 
iniquities, and transgressions of which I have been guilty against 

8 Judge not . . .: i.e. until thou art placed in a similar temptation ; 
cp. Matt. vii. 1-5. 

9 which cannot be understood: lit. "which cannot be heard"; 
the saying is ambiguous, but the meaning probably is that when a 
teacher puts forth some dictum he should not put it in an enigmatical 
form and then say that, although it cannot be understood at once, its 
meaning will become clear later when fully pondered ; in other words, 
a teacher should make his teaching clear from the outset. The warn 
ing was thoroughly a propos when one remembers the paradoxical 
form of so many Rabbinical utterances. There is a variant reading 
which omits the negative, viz. " which can be understood " ; but 
there is little doubt about the reading adopted above being the 
correct o;ne. 

II T9 

and "Say not, When I have leisure 1 I will study ; 2 it 
may bc % that thou wilt have no leisure. 

6. He used to say : " An empty-headed 3 man fears not sin ; 

nor is a vulgar person pious ; 4 nor can a shy man 
learn ; 5 nor can a passionate man teach ; 6 nor can he 
who is much 7 occupied in business become wise"; and 
" Wheresoever s there are no men strive to be a man." 

7. Moreover, 9 he saw a skull 10 floating 11 on the face of the 

1 When I have leisure : Note the heaping-up of particles (rtyswt^j} ; 
the verb n:c: means lit. "to turn oneself away," viz. from other occupa 

- I will study : The root n:s? means lit. " to repeat "; by repeating 
a thing one learns it ; and so the word came to mean "to learn" as 
well as "to teach," specifically in regard to the Law. " Mishnah" comes 
from the same root. 

3 empty-headed : "boorish," "uncultivated"; the root TQ means 
to be empty." 

4 nor is a vulgar person" pious : ywrrcr ( l (im ha-aretz) and T rn 
(Chasid] are both technical terms in Rabbinical literature; the former, 
used both collectively and individually, means lit. "people of the land," 
and is usually held to mean "unlearned in the Law" (see, however, 
the present writer s The Books of the Apocrypha, p. 92 f., where both 
these terms are discussed) ; cp. John vii. 49. The Chtisidim are the 
"pious ones," or " saints" as they are called in the Psalms. 

5 nor can a shy man learn: lit. "does"; because he is afraid to 
ask questions of his teacher; the word for "shy" or "bashful" (prra, from 

the root ra) is generally used in a good sense, "chaste," e.g. T.B. 
Nedarim 20 a \ " Lt is a favourable indication in a man that he is 
bashful" (Jastrow, S.T.). 
" nor can a passionate man . . .: because he is lacking in patience. 

7 nor can he who is much . . .: lit. " nor he that multiplies . . ."; 
see the note on ii. 2 and the reference to Sir. there given. 

8 Wheresoever : lit. " in the place where." 

Moreover . . . : The saying in this verse, which is partly in 
Aramaic, is found after another saying of Hillel s in T.B. Sukka ^a 

10 skull : Hebr. rv^ (gulgoleth] ; cp. Matt, xxvii. 33 ; lit. something- 
folded or rolled up (cp. John xx. 7); the place-name Gilgal (=a circle 
of stones) comes from the same root. The word could also be trans 
lated " head." 

11 floating: lit. "swimming." 

c 2 

20 11 

waters, and lie said unto it : " Because they drowned 
thee thou art drowned, but they that drowned thee shall 
(themselves) be drowned at the last." ] 

8. He used to say : " The more 2 flesh the more worms, 8 the 

more treasures the more care, the more maidservants the 
more lewdness, the more manservants the more theft, 
the more women the more witchcrafts, 4 the more Torah 
the more life, 5 the more wisdom the more academies 
of learning, 6 the more righteousness 7 the more peace." 
"He who hath gained a good name 8 hath gained (some 
thing) for himself/ " He w r ho hath gained words of 
Torah for himself hath gained for himself life in the 
world to come/ 9 

9. Rabban Jochanan ben Zakkai 10 received (the Law) from Hillel 

1 Because . . .: This is not a direct translation, but presumably 
represents what the original intends ; lit. it runs : " Because thou art 
drowned they drowned thee . . ." The saying expresses the idea of 
retributive justice : cp. Sota i. 7 : "With the measure wherewith a man 
measures shall he be measured" (Strack), and see Matt. vii. 2 ; 
xviii. 23-35. 

- The more: lit. "He that increaseth"; and so each time in this verse. 

3 worms : cp. iv. 4 : " The expectation of man is worms/ 

4 ... the more witchcrafts : The same is said in T.B. Sanhcdrin 
67 a (Hoffmann). 

5 life: i.e. eternal life; cp. the words from the Midrash Sifre 84^ 
already quoted in the notes to i. 4. 

(1 academies of learning: "Yeshibah," lit. "sitting," one of the 
technical terms for a place where the pursuit of wisdom is fostered ; 
cp. Sir. li. 29 (Hebr.). 

7 righteousness: njrj? in neo-Hebr. = "almsgiving"; cp. Is. xxxii. 17; 

Matt. vi. 1-4. In three MSS. "the more righteousness the more 
peace" is preceded by "the more counsel the more discernment." 

8 a good name : cp. Kccles. vii. i ; Sir. xli. 11-13 (Hebr.), esp. the 
last verse. 

!) the world to come : an cViyn (ha-^Ohim lia-ba} in contrast to 

rnn cVirn (ha- 1 lam ha-zeh\ "this world" or "age"; cp. Eph. i. 2: 

(6 alow ovrof, and 6 alw 6 ^e AXooi ); Mark x. 30; Luke xviii. 30. Notice 
again the emphasis laid on the connexion between the Law and eternal 

10 R. Jochanan b. Zakkai : Like Zo^aicr, abbrev. from Zechariah ; 
he worked during the last quarter of the first century A.D., especially 

II 21 

and from Shammai. 1 He used to say : " If thou hast 
practised much Torah 2 claim not merit for thyself, 3 since 
for this purpose thou wast created." 

to. Rabban Jochanan ben Zakkai had five pupils, 4 and these 5 
were they : Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanos, 6 and Rabbi 
Joshua ben Chananiah, 7 and Rabbi Jose the priest, 8 

in Jabneh (Jamnia), where he founded an academy soon after the fall 
of Jerusalem. Here he gathered together the remnants of Israel s 
teachers who continued the study of the Law, so that had it not been 
for his action it is probable that Judaism would have sunk in oblivion. 
As a contemporary both of Christ and St. Paul he is a man of con 
siderable interest. He was famed for his great piety and his rigid 
adherence to the precepts of the Law. 

1 from Hillel and from Shammai : cj>. i. 12 and ii. 4. 

- practised much Torah : This is the best reading, although the 
verb rroy is not used with Torah as a rule (either with "the things 
of the Law," or with mitsvah, "commandment"), but c/>. Josh. xxii. 5 ; 
Neh. ix. 34 (Strack) ; Sir. xix. 20. Other readings are "n rrrcr, 
" learned much Torah," and ravj: rrfcr, " practised much good." Both 
these may be rejected. 

3 claim not merit for thyself: lit. "grasp not good for thyself." 
For the general teaching of the words, cp. Matt. xix. 27 and the 
parable of the labourers in the vineyard, x\. 1-16 ; Luke xvii. 10 ; 
i Cor. iv. 7 ; ix. 16. 

4 Rabban Jochanan . . .: lit. " Five pupils there were to him to 
Rabban . . ." This reduplication "to him" (ft) is omitted by two MSS., 
but the construction occurs elsewhere, e.g. in verse 3. 

:> these : The form here is VTN, also written V 

it is also, though rarely, used interrogatively, "which ?" R. Jochanan 
had, of course, many more than five pupils, but those here mentioned 
were the most prominent. 

R. Eliezer b. H. : Died at the beginning of the second century; 
one of the most prominent of the later teachers, but, narrow and 
obstinate, he held strongly to the rigid observance of the traditional 
Law, of which his knowledge was immense; see T.B. Sanhedrin 6Sd 

7 R. Joshua b. C. : Together with R. Eliexer, the most celebrated 
of Jochanan s pupils ; he died soon after 130 .4.1).: a Levite, of gentle 
disposition, of whom it is said that when he died there was no more 
gentle-heartedness in the world ; Mishnah, So/a ix. 15 (Schiirer). 

8 R. Jose the priest : An example of one of the priestly party 
belonging to the Pharisees ; as a rule there was antagonism between 
the aristocratic priesthood and the Pharisees. 

22 II 

and Rabbi Simeon ben Nathanael, 1 and Rabbi Eleazar 
ben Arak. 2 He used to recount their praise 8 (thus) : 
"Eliezer ben Hyrcanos 4 is a plastered cistern 5 which 
loseth not a drop. Joshua ben Chananiah blessed is 
she 6 who bore him! Jose the priest is a Chasid. 7 
Simeon ben Nathanael is one that feareth sin. Eleazar 
ben Arak is an ever-welling spring." 8 

ii. He used to say: "If all the wise men of Israel were in the 
scale of a balance, and Eliezer ben Hyrcanos in the other 
scale, he would weigh 9 them all down." 

10 [Abba Shaul said in his name : n " If all the wise 

1 R. Simeon b. N.: Nothing is known of him save what is mentioned 
below, verses 12, 17. 

2 R. Eleazar b. A.: From all accounts a man. of great learning ; in 
the Jer. Talm. Chagigah ii. 77 #, it is said : "Happy art thou, O father 
Abraham, from whose loins sprang Eleazar ben Arak " (quoted by 
Mendelsohn mJE v. 97 ^)- 

3 praise : The word (mti) means also " superiority," and probably 

this idea underlies the use of it here, since these five were the out 
standing among Jochanan s pupils. 

4 Eliezer b. H. : Two MSS. insert "Rabbi"; but in view of its 
absence before the other names it should evidently be omitted here. 

5 a plastered cistern: lit. "a cistern of lime"; the same word was 
used of the plaster, a!most as white as snow, of the Temple walls 
( Jastrow). 

6 blessed is she . . .: As in Ps. i. i, nw ; cp. Luke xi. 27. 

7 Chasid : See note on verse 6. 

8 an ever-welling spring: The form of the word (hithp.) gives the 
idea of continuously growing force. In Prov. xviii 4 it is said : "The 
wellspring of wisdom is a flowing brook." 

9 he would weigh : cp. vi. 6 ; the word is also used of good deeds 
overbalancing evil ones. 

10 Abba Shaul . . . them all down : This sentence, which purports 
to be an expression of opinion differing from that of Jochanan, is a 
later insertion. It is, however, possible that it is a correction of the 
preceding sentence which had been erroneously handed down ; for in 
AN xxix. this passage runs : "Abba Shaul said in the name of Rabbi 
Akiba, who said it in the name of R. Jochanan . . ." ; a reference to 
what R. Jochanan says about Eleazar ben Arak in verses 12, 13 points 
to this latter having been considered the greatest of his pupils. 

11 in his name : The usual formula whereby a pupil hands down the 

2 3 

men of Israel were in the scale of a balance, 
and Eliezer ben Hyrcanos with them too, 1 
and Eleazar ben Arak in the other scale, he 
would weigh them all down."] 

He said - unto them : 3 " Behold, now, 4 which is the good 
way to which a man should cleave ? " Rabbi Eliezer 
said: "A good eye." 5 Rabbi Joshua said: "A good 
companion." 6 Rabbi Jose said : " A good neighbour." 7 
Rabbi Simeon said : " He that seeth 8 that which shall 
be." 9 Rabbi Eleazar said : " A good heart." 10 (Then) 
said he unto them : "To me it appears 11 that the words 
of Eleazar ben Arak are better than your words, for his 
words include 12 your words." 

utterance of a teacher ; see the words at the end of vi. 6 : "who utters 
a saying in the name of him who said it . . ." 

1 and Eliezer . . . too : These words are probably a gloss added 
by the redactor of the Mishnah (Hoffmann). 

2 He said : i.e. R. Jochanan. 

3 unto them : i.e. his five chief pupils. 

4 Behold, now : lit. "Go and see," a formula for arousing attention. 

5 A good eye : cp. v. 9 ; Prov. xxii. 9 ; Matt. vi. 22, 23. For the 
converse, "an evil eye" of a grudging, envious man, see Sir. xiv. 8-10; 
cp. Mark vii. 22. The replies given are in each case very pregnant, 
and words have to be supplied mentally; e.g. A good eye is the best 
means whereby a man is able to continue in the good way. 

companion : chaber ; see note on i. 6. 

7 neighbour : This refers to the companion with whom a man 
associates when among his fellow-creatures generally ; the chaber 
refers to the companion in Torah-study. 

8 He that seeth . . .: i.e. a man of foresight and experience ; these 
things enable him to keep in the good way. 

9 that which shall be : iVi:n, lit. "that shall be born"; cp. Ps. xxii. 32 

10 A good heart : The heart, being regarded as the seat of the 
understanding^. O.T. usage) as well as \.\\tfons et origo of all action, 
is, if "good," rightly looked upon by R. Jochanan as the most im 
portant means whereby a man can cleave to the right way. 

11 To me it appears : lit. " I (emphatic) see." 

12 for his words include . . .: This is a paraphrase; it is impossible 
here to render the Hebrew otherwise than by paraphrase. 

24 ii 

13. He said unto them: "Behold, now, 1 which is the evil way 

from which a man should keep himself?" Rabbi Eliezer 
said: "An evil eye." 2 Rabbi Joshua said: "An evil 
companion." Rabbi Jose said: "An evil neighbour." 
Rabbi Simeon said : " He that borroweth, and repayeth 

3 [One that borroweth from man is as he that 
borroweth from God 4 Blessed be He ! since 
it is said : "The wicked borroweth, and payeth 
not again, but the righteous is merciful and 

Rabbi Eleazar said: "An evil heart." (Then) said he 
unto them: "To me it appears 5 that the words of 
Eleazar ben Arak are better than your words, for his 
words include your words." 

14. They said 6 three things. Rabbi Eliezer said: "Let the 

honour 7 of thy associate be dear to thee as thine own" : 
and " Be not easily s provoked, and repent one day 

1 Behold, now : See note on preceding verse. 

- An evil eye : See note on preceding verse, and cp. Prov. xxiii. 6 : 
xxviii. 22 ; Matt. xx. 15 ; Mark vii. 21, 22. 

3 [One that borroweth . . .] : This is clearly a later addition ; the 
quotation is from Ps. xxxvii. 21. 

4 God: In the Hebrew Makom, lit. "Place"; cp. iii. 3, 10, 14; vi. i ; 
this substitute for the name of God, which is often found in Rabbinical 
literature, is used for reverential reasons by avoiding the direct use 
of the name of God ; and also in order to express the truth of the 
divine ubiquity ; God is the " space " or "place " of the world ; being 
infinite, He embraces the universe, but the universe cannot contain 
Him. In the Midrash Bereshith Rabba is said: " Why do 
they call the Holy One Blessed be He \-Makom ? Because He is 
the place of the world, and His world is not His place." cp. Acts 
xvii. 28 ; i Cor. xv. 28 ; Eph. iv. 6, 10. 

1 To me it appears . . .: See notes on preceding verse. 

l! They said . . .: i.e. each of the five disciples 

7 Let the honour . . .: cp. iv. 12. 

s Be not easily . . .: cp. \ Cor. xiii. 5. 

repent one day . . .: i.e. to-day, for death may come any day ; 
this is how R. Eliezer explains the words in T,B. Shabbath 153"^ 

II 2 5 

before thy death"; and "Warm thyself 1 before the fire 
of the wise, but beware of their embers, lest thou be 
burned ; for their bite is the bite of a fox, their sting 
the sting of a scorpion, their hiss the hiss of a serpent ; 
and all their words are like coals of fire." 2 

15. Rabbi Joshua said: 3 "An evil eye, 4 and the evil tendency, 5 

and hatred of mankind, 6 drive a man " out of the world." 

1 6. Rabbi Jose said: "Let the wealth 8 of thy companion be 

dear to thee as thine own " ; "Set thyself to learn Torah, 

1 Warm thyself. . .: The general meaning of this saying is pro 
bably as follows : Let a man draw near to those learned in the Law 
in order that he may become conversant with it ; but let him bear in 
mind the result, for increased knowledge of the Law means increased 
responsibility (cp. Rom. vii. 7ff.), and if that increased responsibility 
is not lived up to a man will suffer for it. The expressions "bite of a 
fox," etc., are, in all probability, pictorial phrases denoting degrees 
of punishment from those in authority for transgressions of the Law. 

2 their words . . . fire : cp. Jer. v. 14. 

:; R. Joshua said : Here the three sayings are compressed into one. 

4 An evil eye : See note on verse 12. 

the evil tendency: Yetgerfa-ra =*\usti the word Yetzer comes 
from the root -i^, "to form" or "frame"; hence the word connotes what 
is formed or conceived in the mind, " purpose " or "intention." In 
the O.T. it is used in both a good sense (Is. xxvi. 3 ; i Chron. xxix. 18) 
and a bad one (Gen. vi. 5 ; viii. 21). It was later that the idea of the 
Yetser being essentially evil arose, the evil nature or tendency 
(Yelser Jia-ra 1 ") ; cp. Sir. xv. 14 ; xvii. 31 ; xxi. 11 ; xxxvii. 3 ; see also 
Mark vii. 21 ; still later there grew up the doctrine of a good tendency 
( Yetzer ha-tob} opposed to the evil one (cp. Rom. vii. 22, 23) ; one sees 
the beginning of this already in Sir. xxxiii. 14, 15. See further Weber, 
pp. 21 5<f. 

hatred of mankind: See note on i. 12 ; and with the thought 
cp. i John iii. 15. 

1 drive a man . . .: cp. Sir. xxx. 24 ; the reference is to this world, 
though some commentators hold that the world to come is also 

8 wealth: j lop ( fj.a fj./jL(o^iis) ; cp. Matt. vi. 24; Luke xvi. 11, 12; in 

Rabbinical literature this word is used in the general sense of posses 
sions, whether of money, cattle, or other property. 

26 ii 

for them dost not inherit it " ; 1 and " Let all thy works 
be done in the name of Heaven." * 

17. Rabbi Simeon said : "Be careful in reading the Shewa * and 
in (offering) prayer " ; and " When thou prayest make 
not thy prayer a mechanical formality, 4 but (let it be) 
an entreaty 5 before God " ; 6 

6 [Blessed be He ! as it is said : "For He is gracious 
and compassionate, slow to anger, and plenteous 
in mercy."] 
and " Be not wicked 7 in thine own eyes." 

1 thou dost not . . .: lit. "it is not an inheritance unto thee," i.e. 
each man has to acquire the knowledge of it by his own effort ; though 
in another sense it is the inheritance of every Israelite ; cp. Deut. 
xxxiii. 4 : " Moses commanded as a law, an inheritance for the 
assembly of Jacob." 

2 Let all thy works . . .: cp. i Cor. x. 31 ; Col. iii. 17. 

3 the Shema* : This is the name given to the combination of the 
three passages, Deut. vi. 4-9 ; xi. 13-21 ; Num. xv. 37-41, which is 
recited by every orthodox Jew twice daily (morning and evening). 
The name S/iema 1 ("Hear") is given from the opening word. It 
occupies almost the position of a Creed, as the dominant idea in 
reciting it is to assert the divine unity: "Hear, O Israel, the Lord our 
God, the Lord is One." In the Jewish Liturgy, of which the Shema i 
has formed a part from pre-Christian times, this opening passage is 
separated from the rest by the interjection of the words : " Blessed 
be His name, whose glorious kingdom is for ever and ever." cp. 
Mark xii. 29 ; see further Weber, pp. 41 ff., 85 ft. 

4 a mechanical formality : ^ means something fixed or perma 
nent, as in i. 15, but it is also used in the sense of a perfunctory act ; 
cp. Matt. vi. si xxiii. 14. In Berakhoth iv. 4, e.g., reference is made 
to one who treats prayer as a perfunctory obligation, in which case 
prayer is not a means of grace (Jastrow). 

5 entreaty: plur. in the original; two MSS. have "mercies and 

6 God : Makom ; see note on verse 13. Two MSS. add " Blessed 
be He," a later addition; the quotation (Joel ii. 13) is also a later 

7 Be not wicked . , .: />. Be not guilty of wilful, deliberate sin ; 
cp. Sir, vii, 16, 

II 27 

iS. Rabbi Eleazar said: "Be intent upon 1 learning how to 
answer an Epicurean"; 2 and "Know before whom 3 
thou toilest " ; and "(Know) who is master of thy 
work, " 

4 [who will pay thee the hire for thy labour.] 

19. Rabbi Tarphon 5 said: "The day is -short, 6 and the work 

is great, and the labourers are sluggish, and the hire 
is abundant, 7 and the master 8 of the house is urgent." 

20. He said (further): Thou canst not finish the work, nor art 

thou free to desist therefrom." 9 " If thou hast learned 

1 Be intent upon . . . : This probably represents the best reading, 
but the MSS. vary, viz. " lie intent upon learning the Torah (in order) 
to answer . . . ; " Be intent . . . the Torah in order that thou mayest 
know how to answer..." The word rendered "be intent" (ipf) 
means to concentrate all one s efforts upon something. 

- an Epicurean : In the early Rabbinical literature this is used of 
an unbeliever or a heretic, and especially of one who does not believe 
in life after death or in an overseeing Providence; cp. Josephus, Antiq. 
X. xi. 7. In the later literature the term is used in a wider sense 
of one who despises the Rabbis, or of one who does not believe in the 
divine origin of the Torah. See further G. Deutsch \\\JE\. 665^. 
With the saying cp. i Pet. iii. 15. 

before whom : i.e. God ; cp. Rom. iv. 4. 

1 The words in square brackets are found in two MSS.; they are a 
later gloss. 

;> Rabbi Tarphon : Died early in the second century ; he had been 
a priest of the Temple in his youth ; he is spoken of as being strongly 
opposed to Jewish-Christians (T.B. Shabbath n6cz; see Bacher, 
Agada der Tannaiten, pp. 348 ff.). 

The day is short : i.e. the span of life on earth ; cp. John ix. 4 : 
"We must work the works of Him that sent Me while it is day ; the 
night comefh when no man can work." 

7 the hire is abundant : Omitted by two MSS. 

8 the master . . .: i.e. God; with the saying generally, cp. Matt. ix. 
37 ; xx. i ff. 

8 Thou canst not . . .: lit. " It is not upon thee . . ."; three MSS. 
read "all the work." nor art thou free: pirqa nrjM *fy ; in Bibl. 
Hebr. tnin means "noblemen" (i Kings xxi. 8, etc.), hence one who 
is a free-man ; later the meaning was extended, as in this saying. 

28 11-111 

much Torah, they give thee 1 much reward ; and faithful 
is He who is Master of thy work, 2 who will recompense 
thee the reward of thy work ; and be thou assured 3 
that the gift of recompense 4 of the righteous is for the 
time to come." 5 


i. (i) AKABIAH BEN MAHALALEKL 6 said: Keep in mind three 
things, and thou wilt not come into the power of sin : 7 
Know whence thou earnest, and whither thou art going, 

According to the later usage the word is usually connected with p 
("son of"); cp. Eccles. x. 17 cnvrp, "a free-man" (lit. "a son of 
nobles "). therefrom : Omitted by most of the MSS. 

1 they give thee : i.e. God (cp. the rest of the saying) ; this sub 
stitute for the name of God (cp. the use of " Heaven," always in the 
plur. in Hebr.) is frequent in Rabbinical literature ; cp. iii. 5 ; an 
instance of it in the N.T. is Luke xvi. 9 : "... that when it shall fail, 
they may receive you into the eternal tabernacles." Another use of the 
3rd pers. plur. in Rabbinical literature is that which is equivalent to 
""one"; the context usually makes it clear which of the two meanings 

- Master of thy work : i.e. He for whom the work is done. 

:; be thou assured : lit. "know." 

4 the gift of recompense : Note the doctrine of grace here implied 
see Weber, pp. 313 ff., 330 ff.) ; one should contrast this with the 
frequent insistence upon the efficacy of works in Rabbinical literature ; 
cp. Rom. iv. 2 ; Gal. ii. 16 ; Eph. ii. 8-10. 

:> for the time to come : ir Trip does not necessarily refer to the 

Hereafter (siin ^ir) ; it refers to the indefinite future, and may, of 

course, include the future life. 

G Akabiah b. M. : The absence of the title Rabbi points to an early- 
date ; the time of his activity cannot be stated with certainty, but it 
was probably during the middle or latter half of the first century A.D. 
(see Strack, Einleitung 271 den Talmud, p. 85 [4th ed.], with the reft". 
there given). 

7 Keep . . . power of sin : In ii. i these identical words are re 
corded of Judah ha-Nasi ("Rabbi"). 

m 29 

and before whom thou wilt (have to) give 1 account- and 
reckoning: 3 Whence thou earnest: from decaying 
seed; 4 and whither thou art going: to worm and 
maggot; and before whom thou wilt (have to) give 
account and reckoning : before the King of the kings 
of kings Blessed be lie ! 

2. (2) Rabbi Chananiah, Sagan 6 of the priests, said : " Pray 7 for 
the peace of 8 the kingdom, for were it not for the fear of it 9 

1 thou wilt (have to) give : jrc rnr nnw; the word -rnr means some 
thing fixed which is to happen, something that stands predetermined 
the root =" to stand," cp. Tor), and therefore something that is bound 
to happen in the future; hence the word is often used simply to express 
the future, as in the sentence before us. A frequent phrase in Rab 
binical literature is } ? Tnrb (abbreviated V*yV)i meaning the Messianic 
future, or the life hereafter. For the form rr, cp. iv. 10; v. i ; it = the 
Biblical form ,-irr. 

- account: lit. judgement" (p) ; see iv. 22 (concluding words). 
:! reckoning : pprr, from the root I^TT ; a business term. 

4 decaying seed : lit. "a foetid drop." 

:> worm and maggot: cp. ii. 7 : iv. 4 : job \xv. 6 : two MSS. add 

E. Chananiah, Sagan . . .: He lived before the destruction of the 
Temple ; the title Sag fttt is used in the O.T. (only in the plur.) of 
prefects of Assyria (in Kzek. passim] and of petty rulers and officials 
in Judah under the suzerain power, Persia (only in Ezra and Neh.). 
Later the title was transferred to the chief of the priests in the Temple ; 
and the office of the Sagan was apparently a kind of preparation for 
that of the high-priest; for, according {n^Ytwia iii. 41^, it was 
necessary for a priest to have been Sagan before he could be appointed 
high-priest ; indeed, he could, if necessary, fulfil the functions of the 
high-priest (T.B. } <?/;/<z 39 <?, Hoffmann). R. Chananiah is given the 
title of Sagan whenever he is mentioned in Rabbinical literature (e.g. 
Eduyoth ii. i). Strack, op. r//., p. 85, believes him to have been the 
last Sagan. 

7 Pray: lit. " Be praying"; the Hebr. construction expresses 
continued action. 

* the peace of . . .: cp. i Tim. ii. i, 2. 

y the fear of it : i.e. of the kingdom, meaning those who preserve 
order under the powers that be. 

3 HI 

(every) man would 1 have swallowed up his neighbour 

3. (3) Rabbi Chananiah ben Teradyon 2 said : "(Where) two sit 
together without the words of the Torah, behold, there is 
the seat of the scornful, as it is said : 3 Nor sitteth in 
the seat of the scornful ; 4 but (where) two 5 sit together 
and are occupied 6 with the words of the Torah, there is 
the Shekhinah 7 among them, as it is said: Then they 

1 (every) man would . . .: One MS. reads : " we should have . . ." ; 
cp. for the phrase Ps. cxxiv. 3 ; Prov. i. 12 ; and see Jer. xxix. 7 ; 
Rom. xiii. i ff. 

2 ... Teradyon : The spelling varies in the MSS. He suffered a 
martyr s death in A.D. 135. 

3 as it is said : For this formula for introducing a quotation from 
Scripture, cp. Eph. iv. 8 : "Wherefore he saith." St. Paul generally 
uses the formula " as it is written." 

4 Nor sitteth . . .: Quoted from Ps. i. i. It is worth noting that 
in Talmudic citations from the O.T. the whole of the verse or passage 
is not quoted, but only a few words from it, the rest being left for the 
leader to supply mentally. 

5 but (where) two . . .: cp. with this saying Matt, xviii. 20: "Where 
two or three are gathered together in My name, there am I in the 
midst of them." 

6 occupied : cp. iv. 10 ; vi. i ; the root pcy means to be diligently 
occupied \\ith something, and is used of worldly business as well as 
of religious duties. 

7 Shekhinah: This word comes from the root p\is " to dwell "or 
" to abide." The origin of the word- in its technical sense is to be 
found in such O.T. passages as Exod. xl. 34 ff., in which it is told that 
"the glory of the Lord filled the tabernacle," and the "cloud" dwelt 
(shakan] over it. The glory of the Lord, conceived of as a bright, 
shining light, was the sign of the divine presence or indwelling. Thus 
the ideas of God s "glory" and of His "indwelling" are very closely 
connected ; one was the earnest of the other, and ultimately they 
became identified. But inasmuch as this sign of the presence of God 
was conceived of as something concrete, i.e. a cloud, it was in a certain 
sense differentiated from God Himself. This it was winch in the 
speculations of later days gave a handle to the idea that the medium 
of God s indwelling itself partook of the nature of a quasi-personality. 
"Shekhinah is sometimes practically equivalent to Memra (Logos), but 
one may distinguish between them by regarding the one as the medium 

Ill 31 

that feared the Lord spake one with another, and the 

Lord hearkened and heard. 1 

(4) 2 [One that sitteth and studieth (the Torah) the 

Scripture reckoneth it to him as though he 
had fulfilled the whole Torah, as it is said : 
He sitteth alone and keepeth silence, because 
he hath laid it upon him. "] 

4. (5) Rabbi Simeon 3 said; "Three who have eaten at one 
table, and have not spoken 4 words of Torah over it, are as 

of a. passive, the other of an active manifestation ; the one as creative, 
the other as overshadowing or indwelling. The two are brought 
together by St. John, in whose theology the conceptions assume a new 
definiteness, and the medium becomes a Mediator : o Ao-yo? aapt 
f-yVTo, *at caKyvaHrtv ei> rjfilv (i. 14). The word o-Krjvrf and its derivatives 
are chosen on account of their assonance with the Hebrew to express 
the Shekhinah and its dwelling with men ; cp. especially Rev. xxi. 3 ; 
and, indeed, so closely does Shekhinah resemble o-Kipq that the former 
has even been thought of as a transliteration of the latter. The word 
is rare in the Mishnah, but occurs frequently in Midrash and Gemara" 
(Taylor, p. 44). 

1 Then they that . . .: Quoted from Mai. iii. 16 ; the point of the 
quotation lies in the words "one with another," i.e. two people speaking 
with one another. Some MSS. add the rest of the verse: "and a 
book of remembrance was written before Him, for them that feared 
the Lord and that thought upon His name." 

2 [One that sitteth . . .] : This is a later insertion ; the differences 
ot readings in the MSS. are not of importance ; the quotation is from 
Lam. iii. 28. 

l{ K. Simeon : This is Simeon ben Jochai, frequently mentioned in 
the Mishnah, who lived during the beginning and middle of the second 
century A.D. ; he was one of R. Akiba s leading pupils ; cp. iv. 13 ; 
vi. 8. He taught in Galilee. 

4 ... and have not spoken . . .: It is probable that grace before 
and after a meal is referred to here ; this has always been regarded as 
absolutely essential by the Jews ; they trace the custom back to the 
patriarch Abraham (T.B. Sofa ioa). "The antiquity of thanksgiving- 
after meals is attested by several ancient writers, e.g. Josephus, Bell. 
Jud. II. viii. 5. The custom of one of the company tak ng the lead in 
calling the rest to offer thanks is, according to the Palestinian Talmud 
(Berakhoth vii. 3), as old as Simeon ben Shetach . . ." (Abrahams, 
p. ccviii ; cp. John vi. n). The present Jewish Liturgy contains a 

though they had eaten sacrifices for the dead, 1 as it 
is said : For all tables are full of vomit (and) filthiness 
(6) without Makom. a But three who have eaten at one table, 
and have spoken words of Torah over it, are as though 
they had eaten from the table of Makom 3 Blessed be 
He ! as it is said : And he said unto me, This is the 
table that is before the Lord. " 4 

5. (7) Rabbi Chaninah ben Chakinai 5 said: "He that lies awake 6 
in the night and he that walks in the way alone, 7 and turns 8 

special form of grace before and after meals, which is based on ancient 
material, and the pointed references to the Torah recall R. Simeon s 
words in the saying before us. 

1 sacrifices for the dead : Exaggerated statements such as this 
are frequently found in Rabbinical writings ; they have the purpose 
of arresting the attention, and of driving home the lesson or warning 
given. Regarding "sacrifices for the dead," cp. the connected passages 
Num. xxv. 2, 3 ; Ps. cvi. 28 (see also Is. viii. 19). In the Mishnah 
tractate Abodah Zarah ii. 3, it is said that flesh which comes from an 
idol s temple is forbidden to Israelites " because it is looked upon as a 
sacrifice for the dead ; these are the words of Rabbi Akiba." Accord 
ing to this, therefore, sacrifices for the dead are equivalent to sacrifices 
offered to idols ; for these latter cp. i Cor. viii. 

- For all tables . . .: Quoted from Is. xxviii. 18 ; on " Makom " see 
note to ii. 13. 

3 the table of Makom : Evidently meaning the altar; cp. "the 
table of the Lord" in i Cor. x. 21. 

4 And he said unto me . . . : Quoted from Ezek. xli. 22. 

r> R. Chaninah b. Ch.: He lived during the first half of the second 
century A.I). ; he was one of the elder disciples of R. Akiba ; lie 
belonged to Sidon. 

u He that lies awake . . .: Whenever a man is alone, the Rabbi 
teaches, his thoughts should be occupied with good things, i.e. with 
the words of the Torah, otherwise they are apt to wander into wrong- 
directions ; cp. i Thess. v. 10 : ". . . that, whether we wake or sleep, 
we should live together with Him." 

7 alone : TIT, of which the Biblical form is TIT- 

8 and turns : Reading nscai, which is probably the correct one, 
though a majority of the MSS. read rraErarn, making it a participle like 

the other two ; in this case the meaning would be that he who lies 
awake in the night, and who walks in the way alone, and who turns 

his heart to vain thoughts, 1 behold, such a man makes 
himself guilty- against his own soul." 

6. (8) Rabbi Nechuniah ben ha-Kanab 3 said : "Whosoever takes 4 

upon him the yoke of the Torali, from him is removed 
the yoke of the government 5 and the yoke of worldly 
care ; 6 and whosoever breaks from off him the yoke 7 
of the Torah, they lay upon him the yoke of the govern 
ment and the yoke of worldly care." 

7. (9) Rabbi Chalaphta 8 of Kephar-Chanani : ah said : "When ten 

his heart to vain thoughts, makes himself guilty, etc. This threefold 
form in uttering maxims is a favourite one among the early Rabbis. 
But the other reading commends itself because the saying emphasises 
the danger of loneliness ; when a man is alone there is more danger 
of his giving way to vain thoughts than when he is in company. 

1 vain thoughts : rnsa, lit. "vanity" or "idleness"; the root mean 
ing is " to be void " or " empty." 

- makes himself guilty . . .: i.e. sins against himself. 

3 R. Nechuniah b. ha-K. : He lived during the greater part of the 
first century A.D., and was a contemporary of both R. Jochanan ben 
Zakkai and R. Akiba, and lived to a great age. According to Hoff 
mann, " ben-Kanah " is perhaps an abbrev. form of " ben-Kana ah" 
(same root as Cain = smith) ; "the translation son of Zelotes is in 
any case incorrect." 

4 Whosoever takes . . .: lit. "receives"; with the saying cp. Matt, 
xi. 29, 30 : " Take My yoke upon you, and learn of Me . . ."; and cp. 
Berakhoth ii. 2 : " the yoke of the kingdom of Heaven," and " the yoke 
of the commandments" (= Torah). 

5 government : lit. " kingdom " (malkutfi) ; as Taylor points out, 
" the yoke ofmalkutk stands for the burdens, as of taxation, put upon 
a man by the government under which he lives, or the oppression 
which he may suffer at the hands of the great." These things do not 
trouble a man when he gives himself whole-heartedly to the service 
of the Torah. 

6 worldly care : lit. " the way of the earth " (p -j-n) ; see note on 

7 breaks the yoke: The same word (p-e) occurs in iv. 7 in the sense 
of "freeing oneself"; cp. Gen. xxvii. 40, of "shaking off the yoke." 

8 R. Chalaphta: Some MSS. add "ben Dosa"; as this Rabbi 
lived rather later (second half of second century) than those who are 

34 l" 

sit together 1 and are occupied with the Torah, the 
Shekhinah 2 is among them, as it is said : * God standeth 
in the congregation of God. 

3 [And whence (can this be proved of) even five? as 
it is said : He judgeth among gods. ] 

named before and after him here, it is probable that this saying is out 
of place. He was a pupil of R. Meir (see iv. 14). Kephar-Chananiah 
is a small village in Galilee. 

1 When ten sit together . . . : cp. Matt, xviii. 20. The origin of 
the rule that not less than ten men are necessary to constitute a 
congregation is probably to be sought in the fact that ten heads of 
families formed in very early times the smallest political subdivision 
(see Exod. xviii. 21, 24) ; but in the Talmud the Biblical authority is 
said to be Num. xiv. 27 : " How long shall I bear with this evil 
congregation which murmur against Me?" Regarding these words, 
it is said that they refer to the ten scouts sent to spy out the land, 
i.e. there were really twelve, but Caleb and Joshua were righteous ; 
this left ten, who were an "evil congregation" (the Talmudic comment 
on the Mishnah Megillah i. 3). The number ten applied to this 
" congregation (rnv = l edah) was supposed to suggest that any con 
gregation assembled for worship should consist of not less than ten 
men. It is a good example of the way a Scriptural text is pressed 
into use provided it contains the essential word, in this case " con 
gregation." Since, then, it was an understood thing that ten men 
constituted a sufficient number for the holding of divine service, i.e. a 

standeth. The modern name for the minimum of ten is Minyan* lit. 
" count." 

- Shekhinah : See note on iii. 3. 

3 [And whence (can . . .] : This is a later addition. The MSS. 
vary; some omit "five," others connect "five" with the proof-text, 
Amos ix. 6 (" He hath founded . . ."). The later Rabbi who inserted 
these words in brackets, desiring to give Biblical authority for the 
Shekhinah being among five men, bethought him that in a court 
Ql judgement the smallest number was five, i.e. three judges and two 
litigants; the essential word was "judge," which he found ready to 
hand in the same verse in which the previous essential word (" con 
gregation") was found. But if, as in other MSS., the "five" is con 
nected with Amos ix. 6, then the essential word is " troop " (mr) for 

" l 35 

And whence (can this be proved of) even three ? 1 as it is 
said : * He hath founded his troop upon the earth. And 
whence even (of) two ? 2 as it is said : Then they that 
feared the Lord spake often one to another, and the 
Lord hearkened and heard. And whence even (of) 
one ? 3 as it is said : In every place where I record My 
name I will come unto thee and bless thee. " 

8. (10) Rabbi Eleazar ben Jehudah 4 of Bartotha 5 said: "Give to 
Him 6 of that which is His, for thou and that which is thine 
are His; 7 and thus He saith in David: 8 For all things 
come of Thee, and of Thine own have we given Thee. " 9 

in Hebrew this word also means a "bundle" which can be grasped 
with the "five" fingers. 

1 And whence . . . even three? . . .: Here "three" is connected 
with Amos ix. 6, where again "troop" (H-DUN) is the essential word, 
because three is the smallest number of which a troop can consist ; 
or one can explain it as Rashi does, who interprets the words in 
Exod. xii. 22, a "bundle" (rrna), or bunch, of hyssop, as consisting 
of three stalks (Taylor). 

2 And whence . . . (of) two ? . . .: Here the essential words in the 
proof-text, Mai. iii. 16, are "one to another" (lit. "a man to his 
neighbour"), i.e. two men. 

3 And whence . . . (of) one ? . . . : In the proof-text, Exod. xx. 24, 
the essential word is " thee," referring to a single person. This 
method of fixing on proof-texts from the Scriptures strikes us, of 
course, as very far-fetched and mechanical ; but it must be remembered 
that this was the recognised Rabbinical method, and it is that which 
is not infrequently employed by the New Testament writers in their 
use of the Old Testament ; e.g. Matt. ii. 15, 17, 18 ; iii. 3 ; Gal. iii. 16 ; 
iv. 27, 30 ; etc. 

4 R. Eleazar b. J. : He lived at the end of the first, and early part 
of the second, century ; a contemporary of R. Akiba. Ben Jehudah is 
omitted by some MSS. 

5 Bartotha : a village in Upper Galilee. 
Give to Him : i.e. to God. 

7 for thou and . . .: cp. John xvii. 10. 

8 in David : For the form of the phrase cp. Mark xii. 26 ; Rom. 
ix. 25 ; xi. 2 ; its exact form occurs in Hebr. iv. 7. 

9 For all things . . .: This is a quotation from I Chron. xxix. 14, 
but the words "in David" are strictly correct, for the quotation is from 
David s hymn of thanksgiving. 

D 2 

36 in 

9. (i i) Rabbi Jacob 1 said : "He who walks in the way and studies, - 
and interrupts 3 his study, 2 saying : * How beautiful is this 
tree, (or) How beautiful is this ploughed field, 4 the 
Scripture reckons it unto him 5 as if he had made himself 
guilty against 6 his own soul." 

10. (12) Rabbi Dosthai ben Rabbi Jannai 7 said in the name of 8 

1 Rabbi Jacob : This is not the same R. Jacob mentioned in iv. 16, 
but the son of Eliezer ben Jacob the elder, who lived during the second 
half of the first century A.D. Some texts read here " Simeon," others 
" Akiba," but "Jacob " is the best attested reading. 

- and studies ... his study : The word in each case is "mishnah"; 
it comes from the root meaning "to repeat," hence "to learn"; the noun 
in its technical sense means " study," especially in relation to the Law, 
and then the result of this study, i.e. the Mishnah ; the word is also 
used of a single passage from this compendium, "a mishnah," plur. 
mishnaioth. The Aramaic for Mishnah is Tanna. and this is the 
technical name (plur. Tannaini) given to the Rabbinical authorities 
during the first two centuries A.I). 

3 interrupts : pcs = the Biblical p-ro (" to part " or " separate "; very 
rare, only Prov. xiii. 3 ; Ezek. xvi. 25). 

4 ploughed field : T:, from the root meaning " to break up," as 
distinct from " fallow ground " (TQ) ; the two are distinguished in 
Peak ii. i (Jastrow). 

5 the Scripture...: v?r nbm nron, " that which is written (i.e. 
the Scripture) reckons it unto him "; this is a frequently occurring 
phrase, and is usually followed by a quotation from Scripture ; cp. 
Gal. iii. 22. 

6 . . . guilty against . . .: cp. iii. 5, and see note there. 

7 E. Dosthai b. R. J.: He lived during the latter half of the second 
century ; the name Dosthai = Dositheos (it occurs in Josephus, 
Antiq. XV. vi. 2 ; Apion. ii. 5, and on an inscription found in Nysa in 
Asia Minor, Schurer, iii. pp. 16, 73 ; see also 3 Mace. i. 3\ Greek 
names ^ often occur in the Mishnah, e.g. Antigonos in i. 3 above. 
Jannai : An abbreviation for Jehonathan ; for similar abbreviations 
see i. 8 ; ii. 8. 

8 in the name of: The regular formula indicating from whom 
traditional teaching is handed down ; lit. "from the name of" (DITO). 
The form Q^ = the Biblical etf, though the later form occurs several 
times in Ezra and Daniel. 

in 37 

Rabbi Meir : l "Whosoever 2 forgets 3 a single word of 
his study 4 they reckon 5 it unto him as though he had 
made himself guilty against his own soul, as it is said : 
Only take heed to thyself and keep thy soul diligently, 
lest thou forget the words which thine eyes have seen. 6 
It might (however) 7 be that his study was (too) hard for 
him (to remember), therefore learn to say : And lest 
they depart from thy heart all the days of thy life. 8 
Thus, 9 he has not made himself guilty against his own 
soul unless he sits (idle) and puts them away 10 from 
his heart." 

1 R. Meir : See iv. 12. 

2 Whosoever: One MS. reads : "Whatsoever scholar among the 
wise (Chakamini] sits and studies and, etc."; this is probably a later 

3 forgets . . .: As the traditional handing down of the Oral Law was 
not committed to writing, anything that was forgotten was a permanent 
loss to later teachers. 

4 study : lit. " mishnah." 

5 they reckon: See note on preceding verse. Some MSS. have : 
" that which is written reckons it unto him." Here the usual rule of 
quoting the Scriptures after this formula is followed. 

c Only take heed . . . : Deut. iv. 9 ; in this text the words " which 
thine eyes have seen " did not, of course, apply to the Oral Law, but 
this did not trouble the ancient Rabbi ; it was sufficient that the text 
contained the essential words " lest thou forget the words." 

7 It might (however) . . .: This is a mitigation of what might 
appear so severe a judgement (making himself guilty against his own 
soul) for a mere lapse of memory ; therefore, it is pointed out that it is 
not the simple forgetting which is blamed, but the deliberate and 
wilful failure to try to remember. Taylor appropriately refers to Isaac 
bar Shelomoh, who quotes from the Midrash Sifrc (on Numbers and 
Deuteronomy) that "a man should be as careful to preserve hisTorah 
as his money, for it is hardly gotten, as gold, and perishes easily, as 
glass (Job xxviii. 17). He who learns Torah and does not repeat it is as 
one who sows and does not reap. He who learns and forgets is like 
a mother that bears and buries." 

8 And lest . . .: Continuation of the quotation from Ueut. iv. 9. 

9 Thus : lit. " Behold." 

10 and puts . . .: lit. "and turns them away." 

38 in 

ii. (13) Rabbi Chaninah ben Dosa 1 said : "Whosesoever fear of 
sin 2 precedes 3 his wisdom, that man s wisdom endures ; 4 
and whosesoever wisdom precedes his fear of sin, his 
wisdom endures not." 

12. 5 (14) He used to say: "Whosesoever works 6 are more 
abundant than his wisdom, his wisdom endures ; and 
whosesoever wisdom is more abundant than his works, 
his wisdom endures not." 

13. 7 (15) He used to say: "With whomsoever the spirit of man 
kind is pleased, the Spirit of God is pleased ; and with 
whomsoever the spirit of mankind is not pleased, the 
Spirit of God is not pleased." 8 

1 R. Chaninah b. D.: A contemporary of R. Jochanan ben Zakkai ; 
he lived in the latter half of the first century A.D., and was specially 
celebrated as a worker of miracles. Some MSS. read Chahaniah ; 
but Chaninah is the name found in other writings. Dosa is an 
abbreviated form of Dosthai in the preceding verse. 

2 Whosesoever fear of sin . . .: cp. Ps. cxi. 10 : "The fear of the 
Lord is the zenith (>n) of wisdom." Wisdom in this saying means 
knowledge of the Law. 

3 precedes : i.e. takes precedence. 

4 endures: lit. " is confirmed." 

" This saying is omitted by two MSS. 

6 Whosesoever works . . . : cp. i. 17 : " Not the study (of the Law), 
but the carrying out of it is the essential thing." The " works" refer 
here to the carrying out of the Law. Rabbinical opinion on the subject 
of the relative superiority between the study of the Law and the 
carrying out of the works of the Law differs. As opposed to the 
teaching of this saying, Taylor cites Sifre on the text Deut. xi. 13 : 
" If ye shall hearken diligently unto My commandments," " as it is 
said : And ye shall learn them, and ye shall observe to do them 
(Deut. v. i). The Scripture shows that doing depends on learning, 
and not learning on doing." See further Weber, pp. 284 ff. 

7 AN omits the whole of this saying ; according to the Tosephta, 
Berakhoth iii. 3, it was uttered by R. Akiba. 

8 With whomsoever the . . . : The saying is not to be taken in a 
literal sense ; it is a general statement expressive of the belief that 
there is a correspondence of things in heaven and earth. 

in 39 

14. (16) Rabbi Dosa ben Harkinas l said: " Morning sleep, 2 and 

rnid-day wine, and children s babbling, and sitting in the 
meeting-houses of the common people, 3 drive a man 4 
out of the world." 

15. (17) Rabbi Eleazar ha-Modai 5 said: "He that profanes holy 

things 6 and despises the set feasts," [and shames the face 
of his neighbour publicly] 8 and makes the covenant 9 

1 R. Dosa b. H. : He lived at the end of the first, and during the 
first half of the second, century, and was contemporary with the 
disciples of Jochanan ben Zakkai. Harkinas is another Greek name 
( = Ap^Ii/os). 

2 Morning sleep . . . : The real objection to all these four things is 
that they prevent whole-hearted study of the Law. 

3 the meeting-houses of . . .: i.e. the synagogues of the am ha-aretz 
(on these latter see note on ii. 6) ; A N explains by saying : "they that 
sit at the street-corners" (mnp ativ). The synagogue was not only 
used for worship ; among other things children were taught there 
(cp. the modern name among the common folk for the synagogue, 

4 drive a man . . .: See note on ii. 14. 

5 R. Eleazar ha-M. : One MS. reads R. Li ezer. He lived during 
the latter half of the first, and former half of the second, century, and 
was an active supporter of the Bar Cochba rebellion in the reign ot 
Hadrian. The name of ha-Modai, "the Modinite," was given him 
because he was a native of Modin (Modi im), the present El-Medije, 
east of Lydda, celebrated as the home of the Maccabaean family, 
i Mace. ii. 1-5, 70 ; xiii. 25. 

6 holy things : AN reads " Sabbaths." Kodashim (" holy things ") 
and Mo ed ("set feast") are the names of Mishnic tractates, and 
treat respectively of holy things and festivals. 

7 the set feasts: ha-mo adoth (cp. 2 Chron. viii. 13) refer here 
probably to the days which are holy days between the feasts of 
Passover and Tabernacles, for these feasts themselves are not likely 
to have been ignored by any. There is no Biblical prohibition of 
work on these intermediate days, though Rabbinical law forbade work 
during them. 

8 [and shames . . . publicly] : These words are omitted by AN 
and two MSS., while two others place them after the next sentence. 
They are not original. The word "to shame "here means lit. "to 
make white." 

9 and makes the covenant . . .: cp. i Mace. i. 15 : "... and they 

40 in 

of our father Abraham of none effect, and acts 1 bare 
facedly against the Torah he has no portion in the 
world to come, 2 even though there be good works 3 to 
his credit." 

1 6. (18) Rabbi Ishmael 4 said : " Be quick (in doing service) to a 
superior, 5 and kindly disposed towards the aged, 6 and 
receive every man with cheerfulness." 

made themselves uncircumcised, and forsook the holy covenant" 
(" Epispasmus ") ; cp. i Cor. vii. 18. 

1 and acts . . . : One MS. omits the words : "and acts barefacedly 
against the Torah, even though there be good works to his credit." 
A N acids after "the Torah," "which is not according to the Hala- 
kah," i.e. the traditional way, or rule. The phrase lit. is " and 
uncovers his face against the Torah," in contrast to covering the face 
out of reverence ; see Is. vi. 2. 

2 the world to come : See note on ii. 8. 

3 though there be good works . . . : Several MSS. have wrongly : 
" though there be Torah and good works . . ." According to Rabbinical 
teaching a man s good works were balanced against his evil ones, and 
according as to whether the good or the evil weighed heavier he 
entered into bliss or torment ; in T.B. Kiddushin 40 b it is said that a 
man is judged " according to that which balances," i.e. according as to 
whether the good or the evil deeds weigh down the balance ; cp. 
Dan. v. 27 : "Thou art weighed in the balances and art found 

4 R. Ishmael : lived during the latter part of the first, and former 
half of the second, century ; a contemporary of R. Akiba. His home 
was in Kephar Asis, a village on the border of Edom. 

a Be quick . . . superior : The meaning of this phrase is uncertain ; 
lit. it is: "Be light of head," or "to a head." In support of the 
rendering " quick " we have in v. 20 : " Be swift as an eagle ... to do 
the will of thy Father in Heaven" ; bp is not infrequently used in the 
sense of " quick." The word for " superior" is ran, lit. "head"; and 
often occurs in this sense ; cp. Job xxix. 25, where \&o is parallel to -po 
("king"). The same expression, "light of head," occurs in the next 
saying, but there it is in an entirely different connexion and means a 
careless disposition. 

6 and kindly . . . aged : Here again the meaning is uncertain ; as 
to the word rendered "the aged" (it is an abstract ncun in the 
original), mmijn is used in several senses. Hoffmann cites several 
passages in favour of the meaning "old age," and for the general sense 
cp. Kccles, xii. 2 ; fhoreover, this meaning makes a good parallel to 

Ill 41 

[7. (19) Rabbi Akiba l said: "Laughter and levity 2 lead to^ 
lewdness." 3 

1 8. (20) He used to say: "The Tradition 4 is a fence to theTorah ; 

vows are a defence to self-control ; 5 silence 6 is a defence 
to wisdom." 

19. (21) He used to say : "Beloved is man who has been created 

in the image (of God) ; [It was greater love that it was 
made known to him that he was created in the image 
(of God) ;] 7 as it is said : For in the image of God He 
made man. " 

"a superior" in the first clause of the saying. In other places the 
word means just the contrary, viz. "youth," and in yet others " govern 
ment "; the commentators vary in their interpretation of the word here. 

1 R. Akiba : Born in the middle of the first century, he was killed 
about 135 A.D. as being one of the chief supporters of the Bar Cochba 
rebellion ; he believed that Bar Cochba was the Messiah. He was 
of non-Jewish parentage, and until his fortieth year was opposed to 
the Rabbis, yet ultimately he gained a name which was second to none 
among the Rabbis. It was evident, as Strack (Einleitung in den 
Talmud^ p. 19, 4th cd.) shows, that R. Akiba had already begun a 
mishnic collection ; the words " the Mishnah of R. Akiba " occur 
repeatedly ; for full evidence see Strack. 

* levity : lit. "lightness of head." 

3 lewdness : rmy ; the plur. form occurs in v. 9. AN adds : " It is 
a defence to (a man s) honour not to be frivolous." 

4 The Tradition . . . : Massoreth, or Massorah ; see notes on i. i. 
These words are missing in one MS. Some MSS. add : "Tithes are 
a fence to wealth." 

5 self-control : lit. "separation "; the usual connexion in which the 
word is used shows that it means " self-control," whether from fleshly 
or other forms of indulgence ; see Jastrow, s.v. A vow of abstinence 
acts as a defence. 

silence . . . : cp. i. 17. 

7 [It was greater . . .] : Several MSS. omit this clause ; it is 
evidently not original, for the proof-text (Gen. i. 27 ; cp. ix. 6) does not 
bear it out. That the fact of making known an act of grace is greater 
proof of love than the act of grace itself is open to question ; the 
statement was probably added on account of the exaggerated venera 
tion for the Torah through which it was " made known." According 
to AN) this saying is ascribed to R. Meir, who probably heard it from 
R. Akiba (Hoffmann). 

42 in 

20. (22) " Beloved are Israel which are called the sons of God. 1 

It was greater love that it was made known to them that 
they were called the sons of God, as it is said : Ye are 
the sons of the Lord your God. " 2 

21. (23) "Beloved are Israel to whom was given a precious instru 

ment 3 wherewith the world was created. It was greater 
love that it was made known to them that there was 
given unto them a precious instrument whereby the world 
was created, as it is said : For a good doctrine have I 
given you ; forsake not my Law. " 4 

1 God : " Makom "; see note on ii. 13. 

2 Ye are the sons . . .: Quoted from Deut. xiv. i; cp.i John iii. 1,2. 

3 a precious instrument . . . : " Precious " is omitted by some 
authorities ; so, too, in the next sentence. The " instrument " is the 
Torah. The doctrine that the world was created by the Torah is 
logically evolved from various other doctrines of Judaism ; first, the 
Torah is the expression of the divine mind and will ; then, the Torah 
and Wisdom are again and again identified (e.g. Sir. v. 23 ; Baruch 
iv. i ; etc.) ; moreover, an identification, or something very close to it, 
is taught between the Torah and the Memra ( = " Word " of God). 
Bearing these identifications in mind, and remembering how distinctly 
it is taught that the world was created by the Wisdom (eg. Wisd. 
viii. 22-31, etc.) and by the Word (e.g. Ps. xxxiii. 6; cp. cxlviii. 9; 
Sir. xlii. 15 ; Wisd. iv. i ; 4 Esdras vi. 38 ; cp. John i. i ff.) of God, it 
is easy to understand how the idea arose of the world having been 
created by the instrumentality of the Torah. In connexion with this, 
it is worth pointing out that the existence of the Torah before the 
creation of the world is directly taught, e.g. in the Midrash Bereshith 
Rabba i. : "Six things preceded the creation of the world; among 
them were such as were themselves truly created, and such as were 
decided upon before the Creation ; the Torah and the throne of glory 
were truly created." In chap. viii. of the same Midrash it is said that 
the Torah was created 2,000 years before the Creation. In the Talmud, 
Zebachim ii6cz, an old tradition is preserved according to which 
Balaam said to the Gentile kings : " Jehovah has a precious jewel in 
His treasure-house which was held hidden for nine hundred and 
seventy-four generations before the creation of the world ; this treasure 
He will give to His children, i.e. the Israelites." The " precious jewel" 
is the Torah. The Israelites are called "the people of the Law" 
because, although it was offered to all nations, only the Israelites 
accepted it ; this is taught in the Midrash Pesikta i86. 

4 For a good doctrine . , .: Quoted from Prov. iv. 2, 


22. l (24) "Everything is foreseen, 2 and free-will 3 is given"; and 
"The world is judged by grace, yet all is according 4 to 
the abundance 6 of work." 

23. (25) He used to say : " Everything is given as an earnest (of 

1 Doctrinally these two sayings are among the most important of 
the whole tractate. They offer a striking example of the sense of pro 
portion in doctrinal teaching, which is not always conspicuous in 
Rabbinical writings. In these writings the main stress is usually laid 
on free-will and the efficacy of works ; not that divine providence and 
grace are left out of sight far from that ; but they occupy relatively a 
less important position. R. Akiba is strikingly sane and balanced in 
his teaching here, following in this respect Ben-Sira, and reminding one 
of the Pauline teaching in such a passage as Eph. ii. S-io: ". . . for 
we are His workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works, 
which God afore prepared, that we should walk in them "; cp. Rom. 
ii. 6 ; ix.-xk 

2 foreseen : >IKJ, past part, from nns ; the Biblical sense is " to 
watch" or " to look out" (e.g. Gen. xxxi. 49 ; Prov. xv. 3) ; this is also 
frequently the meaning in neo- Hebrew, but in this latter the extended 
meaning of " foreseeing " often occurs, e.g. "every event is foreseen by 
the Lord," Tanchuma, Shclach ix. (Jastrow). 

:i free-will: muh (rashutJi) means ordinarily "authority," as in i. 10; 
then the authority that a man has over himself, i.e. his free-will. The 
word has also the technical sense of "personality" in reference to 
God in Rabbinical literature. See further Weber, pp. 78 f. 

4 yet all is . . .: Four MSS. read : "not according to . . ."; but the 
above is evidently the correct reading. 

h abundance: One MS. omits. 

6 Everything ... as an earnest : The meaning of this difficult 
saying is in part elucidated by the N.T. passages in which the word 
for "earnest" (pi? = a/>pa/3o>f) occurs, viz. 2 Cor. i. 22 : "... who also 
sealed us, and gave us the earnest of the Spirit in our hearts"; v. 5 : 
". . . who gave us the earnest of the Spirit"; Ephes. i. 13, 14 : "... in 
whom, having also believed, ye were sealed with the Holy Spirit 
of promise, which is an earnest of our inheritance." In each case 
something is accorded which is a pledge, or surety, or earnest of 
something else. In the saying before us, what is meant is that every 
thing which God has accorded to man is in itself a pledge, or surety, 
or earnest of something else ; and that something else is a quid pro 
quo from man. Every man has received good things from God, and 
from every man something in return will, sooner or later, have to be 
given. The proof of this lies, according to R. Akiba, in the nature 

44 ni 

repayment) ; and the net l is cast over all the living. 
The office 2 is opened, and the broker 3 gives credit; and 
the writing-tablet 4 is opened, 5 and the hand writes; and 
everyone who desires to borrow comes and borrows ; 
and the collectors 6 go round continually 7 every day, and 
exact payment 8 from a man whether he knows or not ; 9 

of all God s gifts to man. The picture of the business-house with God 
as the broker in his office, giving credit and exacting payment from 
his creditors, is, of course, not to our taste. But it should be recognised 
that there is a real truth (somewhat one-sidedly stated, it is true) in 
what is said, viz. that the divine gifts accorded to men demand a 
return, in some form or other, from men ; and that sooner or later that 
return will have to be made. It is in the nature of divine gifts that 
they cannot be without effect ; they are in themselves the earnest that 
that effect will be produced. This is all one side of the truth, and is 
an illustration of what R. Akiba said in the preceding saying : "all is 
according to the abundance of work." The other side of the truth, 
"the world is judged by grace," is subordinated, as so often by the 
Rabbis ; but we are justified in seeing a reference to it at the end 
of this saying in the words : " the judgement is a judgement of truth." 
For the Christian development of the doctrine, cp. eg. i Cor. vi. 20 ; 
vii. 23 : " Ye were bought with a price." 

1 and the net . . . : i.e. what has been said applies to all without 
exception; for the thought cp. Matt. xiii. 47 ff.: "The kingdom of 
Heaven is like unto a net . . ." 

2 the office : i.e. the world. 

3 the hroker : i.e. God. 

4 writing-tablet : cp:c(= 7ru>a|) ; cp. Luke i. 63, TTWIKI&OI/ ; in Rab 
binical literature this word is generally used of the "book" in which 
a tradesman noted debts owing to him, so that the expression " to 
open the writing-tablet" ( C p :2 nnc) is often - to see what is owing 
(Krauss, in. 145). In the Gospels irlvat; has a different meaning ; cp 
Matt. xiv. 8 ; Luke xi. 39. 

a The words "and the broker gives credit ; and the writing-tablet 
is opened," as well as " and everyone who desires to borrow comes 
and borrows," are omitted by one MS. 

(i the collectors : i.e. the angels. 

7 continually: Two MSS. omit. 

* exact payment : When a man does not pay his due by right 
living, payment is exacted by calamity, sickness, etc., byway of atone 

9 whether he knows or not : i.e. whether he realises or not that 

"i 45 

and they have 1 that upon which they rely. 2 And the 
judgement is a judgement of truth ; and everything is 
prepared for the banquet." 3 

24. (26) Rabbi Eleazar ben Azariah 4 said : "If (there be) no Torah, 
(there is) no courtesy ; 5 if (there be) no courtesy, (there 
is) no Torah. If (there be) no wisdom, 6 (there is) no 
fear (of God) ; if (there be) no fear (of God), (there is) 
no wisdom. If (there be) no knowledge, . (there is) no 
discernment ; if (there be) no discernment, (there is) 
no knowledge. If (there be) no corn, 7 (there is) no 
Torah ; if (there be) no Torah, (there is) no com." 

his calamity or sickness is in lieu of the debt he owes. That sickness 
and death atone for sin is often taught in Rabbinical writings ; see the 
present writer s The Jewish Doctrine of Mediation^ pp. 109 f. 

1 and they have . . . : i.e. the angels have the record of debts in 
the writing-tablet. 

2 rely : lit. " lean." 

3 the banquet : Bliss in the world to come is often spoken of 
figuratively as a " banquet" in Rabbinical writings. The origin of the 
idea, so far as Judaism is concerned, is probably to he found in such 
passages as Zeph. i. 7 ; Is. xxv. 6 ; it is greatly developed in the 
Apocalyptic literature ; see, e.g., Enoch xxv. 4, 5 ; Ix. 7, 8 ; Ixii. 14 ; 
Test. xii. Patr. ; Levi xviii. 1 1 ; Syriac Apoc. of Baruch xxix. 3-8 ; 
Sib. Orac. Prooem. 87, iii. 746 ; 4 Esdras vi. 49-52 ; and in Rabbinical 
writings it is still elaborated; cp. also Matt. viii. 11 ; xxvi. 29; 
Rev. xix. 9. 

4 R. Eleazar b. A.: Pie lived during the second part of the first 
century A.D., and died about 120 A.D. He was President of the 
Sanhedrin in Jabne after Gamliel II. had been deposed. 

5 courtesy: pa -pi, lit. "way of the earth"; see note on ii. 2 ; the 
phrase has various meanings, according to its context. Here it means 
the courteous behaviour which ought to be shown to one s fellow- 

G If (there be) no wisdom . . .: cp. Job xxviii. 28 ; Ps. cxi. 10 ; 
Prov. i. 7 ; ix. 10 ; xv. 33 ; Sir. i. 14 ; xxv. 10 ; Eccles. xii. 13. 

7 If (there be) no corn . . .: lit. " meal"; the words mean that both 
spiritual and physical nourishment are needed ; cp. Prov. ix. 5 and 
Sir. xv. 3 : "And she (i.e. Wisdom) will feed him with the bread of 
understanding, and give him the waters of knowledge to drink." 

46 in 

25. (27) He used to say: "Whosesoever wisdom is greater than his 

works, unto what is he like? 1 To a tree whose branches 
are abundant, but whose roots are scanty ; and the wind 
comes, and uproots it, and overturns it. 2 And whosesoever 
works are more abundant than his wisdom, unto what 
is he like ? Unto a tree whose branches are scanty, and 
whose roots are abundant; if all the winds that are in 
the world 3 come and blow upon it, they move it not 
from its place." 4 

26. (28) Rabbi Eleazar Chasama 5 said: "(The teaching contained 

in) Kinninf and in the opening (sections) viNiddah? these 

1 unto what is he like ? : rran win rroS one of the regular formulas 
for introducing a comparison ; cp. Luke xiii. 18. 

?i overturns it : lit. "turns it upon its face." Some authorities add: 
" As it is said : He shall be like a tamarisk in the desert, and shall 
not see when good cometh ; but shall inhabit the parched places in 
the wilderness, etc." (Jer. xvii. 6). This is in all probability a later 
addition, as it spoils the terse and concise form of the saying. 

3 that are in the world : Omitted by two MSS. 

4 from its place : Some authorities add : " As it is said : He shall 
be like a tree planted by the waters, and that spreadeth out his roots 
by the river, and he feareth not when the heat cometh, and his leaf 
shall be green, and in the year of drought he shall not be careful, 
neither shall he cease from yielding fruit" (Jer. xvii. 8). cp. with the 
general form and thought of this saying Matt. vii. 24-27. 

r> R. Eleazar Ch. : He lived at the end of the first, and first half of 
the second, century A.D. Some MSS. insert "ben" before Chasama, 
but wrongly (see Strack / ;/ loc.}. The name Chasama is pointed by 
some authorities Chisma, by others Chasma ; its exact pronunciation 
is uncertain. This saying is omitted by one of the MSS.; in another 
it is added by a later hand in the margin. 

6 Kinnin . . . Niddah: The names of Mishnah tractates, meaning 
respectively "Nests" and " Uncleanness (of women)"; the former 
deals with the offerings of birds which were brought by women after 
child-birth ("two turtle-doves or two young pigeons," Lev. xii. 8 ; cp. 
Luke ii. 24), and various other cognate subjects. The other deals 
with the whole subject of the uncleanness of women (Lev. xv. 19 ff.) ; 
the opening sections refer especially to the state of women after child 
birth. There is, therefore, a direct connexion between the subjects 
dealt with in these two tractates. Why these should have been 
regarded as constituting the essentials of the Halakoth is possibly 

in-iv 47 

constitute the essentials of the Halakoth. 1 The (teaching 
concerning) astronomical cycles 2 and mathematical prob 
lems 3 are secondary matters 4 of wisdom." 


i. (i) BEN ZoMA 5 said: "Who is wise? He that learns from 
every man, as it is said : * From all my teachers have 

because they contain some of the most intricate arguments and dis 
cussions in the Mishnah, so that if a man grasps them he can 
grasp any. 

1 Halakoth: (One MS. reads "Torah," but wrongly.) Plur. 
of Halakah) from the root halak, "to go"; it means the "way" in 
which a man should walk in accordance with legal directions. The 
word is, therefore, used of the Law, which directs the whole manner 
of life of a pious Israelite ; and then in the more restricted sense, as 
here, of individual rules. See further Weber, pp. 34 ff., 85 ff., 91 ff., loofT. 

2 astronomical cycles : nsipnt in Ps. xix. (6) 7 the word is used 
of the "circuit" of the sun, but in post-Biblical Hebrew it means 
" solstice." 

3 mathematical problems: "Gematria" (=yea>/zrpm). R. Eleazar 
is stated (in T.B. Horajoth 100) to have been a great mathematician 
(Hoffmann). The word " denotes an arithmetical method of exegesis, 
in which the numerical values of the Hebrew letters which, like the 
Greek, are used to denote numbers are taken into account. Thus 
one word may be substituted for another to which it is numerically 
equivalent, as in Bereshith Rabba Ixviii., where Jacob s ladder is 
identified with Mount Sinai^ since cfe, ladder (60 + 30 + 40), is equal 
to >rc, Sinai (60+ 10 + 50+ 10) . . ." (Taylor). 

4 secondary matters : The word rre-ic means lit. something "broken 
up," and is then applied to the " dessert " after a meal, when broken 
almonds and sweetmeats were served ; it thus means something 
pleasant and enjoyable, but not essential. The word comes from the 
root TID (pilpel}, meaning "to crush" (e.g. of crumbling a hard-boiled 
egg over fish), and has nothing to do with "fringes," as though the 
word were a Hebraised form of 7rept$ep fta > "circumference." 

5 Ben Zoma : He lived at the end of the first, and former half of the 
second, century A.D., and was a younger contemporary of R. Akiba. 
His full name was Simeon b. Zoma. He was a great mystic and 
theosophist, of whom it is said that he both " looked, and became, 

(2) I got understanding. 1 Who is mighty? He that 
masters his nature, 2 as it is said : He that is slow to 
anger is better than the mighty ; and he that ruleth his 

(3) spirit than he that taketh a city. 3 Who is rich? He 
that is contented with his lot, as it is said : * When thou 
eatest the labour of thy hands, happy art thou, and it 
shall be well with thee. 4 * Happy art thou J in this world, 
and it shall be well with thee in the world to come. 

(4) Who is honoured? He that honours all men, 5 as it is 
said : For them that honour Me I will honour, and 
they that despise Me shall be lightly esteemed. " 6 

2. (5) Ben Azzai 7 said: "Run to 8 a precept 9 (however) small; 10 
but flee from transgression. 11 For precept leads to 12 
precept, and transgression leads to transgression ; 13 for the 

demented" (quoted by Taylor) ; this must have been after he uttered 
the saying before us, one of the wisest ever put forth. The proof-texts 
here, with one exception, are thoroughly appropriate, but they some 
what detract from the terse forcefulness of the words. 

1 From all . . .: Adapted from Ps. cxix. 99. 

2 nature : Yetzer\ see note on ii. 14. 

3 He that is slow . . .: Quoted from Prov. xvi. 32. 

4 When thou eatest . . .: Quoted from Ps. cxxviii. 2. 
r> all men : lit. "mankind" (nran) ; see note on i. 12. 

6 For them that honour. . .: Quoted from i Sam. ii. 30, where 
these words are put into the mouth of God ; the text is inappropriate, 
but it contains the essential word "honour." 

7 Ben Azzai: His full name was Simeon ben A.; a contemporary 
of Ben Zoma. Note that neither Ben A. nor Ben Z. is jnven the title 
" Rabbi." 

8 Run to . . .: i.e. for the purpose of fulfilling- it. 

9 precept : lit. " commandment." 

10 small : lit. " light." One authority wrongly adds : " as towards 
a weighty one." 

11 flee from transgression: cp. i Cor. vi. 18 : "Flee fornication"; 
i Cor. x. 14 : " Flee from idolatry"; 2 Tim. ii. 22 : "Flee also youthful 

12 leads to : i.e, brings in its train. 

trangression leads to . . . : cp. Schiller s words, Die beiden 
Ficcolomini, act v., sc. i : 

" This is the curse of every evil deed, 
That it begets a further deed of shame." 

rv 49 

reward of precept is precept, and the reward of trans 
gression is transgression." 

3. (6) He used to say : " Despise no man, nor deem aught l 

impossible ; for thou wilt see 2 that there is no man but 
has his day, 3 nor anything 4 that has not its place." 

4. (7) Rabbi Levitas 5 of Jabneh said: "Be very lowly of spirit, 

for man s expectation is but worms." 6 

5. Rabbi Jochanan 7 ben Berokah said: "Whosoever profanes 

the name of God 8 in secret they 9 punish him openly ; 10 
it is one whether, 11 in profaning the Name, a man do it 
unintentionally ] 2 or 11 of set purpose." 13 

1 nor deem aught . . . : The word means lit. putting something in 
the far distance. 

2 thou wilt see . . .: lit. "there is not to thee ? ; the original must 
be paraphrased. 

3 day: lit. "hour." 

4 nor anything . . .: cp. Eccles. iii. 1-8. 

5 R. Levitas . . . : Presumably a contemporary of R. Akiba ; 
nothing is known of him personally, though some sayings of his are 
preserved in Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer (see Gerald Friedlander s edition, 
pp. 169, 422, 434). In one MS. the words of the next verse, "Whoso 
ever profanes . . ." are erroneously inserted here. 

6 Be very lowly . . .: cp. verse 12. This saying is an inexact 
quotation from Sir. vii. 17 :" Humble altogether thy pride, for man s 
expectation is worms"; cp. iii. 3 ; Job xiv. 19 ; Prov. xi. 23; Enoch 
xlvi. 6. 

7 R. Jochanan . . .: He lived at the end of the first, and former half 
of the second, century A.D. 

8 God : lit. " Heaven." 

9 they : i.e. God ; " they " is frequently used in this way in Rab 
binical writings ; cp. Luke xvi. 9 : "... that, when it shall fail, they 
may receive you into the eternal tabernacles." 

10 secret. . . openly: cp. 2 Sam. xii. 12 ; Eccles. xii. 14 ; Luke 
viii. 17. 

11 it is one whether . . . or . . . : This use of tn TIN is Rab 
binical, not Biblical. 

12 a man do it unintentionally : a;ri = "to do wrong inadvertently." 

13 of set purpose : -n = " to act with premeditation." The profana 
tion of the Name of God was an unforgivable sin, whether committed 

5 IV 

6. (8) Rabbi Ishmael, 1 his son, said : " He that learns in order 2 

to teach, they 3 fully grant to him 4 the faculty of learning 
and teaching ; b and he that learns in order that he may 
accomplish, 6 they fully grant him the faculty of learning 
and teaching 5 and accomplishing." 

7. (9) Rabbi Zadok 7 said: "Make them not 8 a crown to glory in, 9 

intentionally or not ; if done without utterance, in the heart, it was 
considered as equally sinful, and punished by God, if not by man, 
according to R. Jochanan ; but in Sanhedrin vii. 5 it is said that "the 
blasphemer is not punishable unless he pronounces the name openly." 
It was, however, regarded as a profanation of the name of God even 
to utter the " Tetragrammaton " (mrr), which was only pronounced by 
the high-priest when giving the blessing in the Temple on the Day 
of Atonement (cp. Youia vi. 2). This name is known as the nrnonn cu? 
(Shem ha-mephoresh], the true meaning of which is uncertain ; the 
root means "to separate," and also "to explain" or "specify"; it 
might, therefore, mean the name that is separate from all other names, 
or the name which explains the being of the Deity, or the name 
which specifies the Deity. Taylor (p. 56) refers to Wisdom xiv. 21, 
TO aKoivwrjTov oVo/ia, " the incommunicable name "; the context, how 
ever, shows that it is not the "Tetragrammaton" as such that is here 
referred to, but simply that the name of Israel s one God must not be 
shared by any other god. 

1 R. Ishmael : He lived during the middle of the second century 
A.D. ; "his son " is omitted by two MSS. 

2 in order: mv-7s "on condition that," "for the sake of," often 
abbreviated to n y. The word n:o means lit. " share," or " that which 
is appointed " to someone. The learning and teaching refer to the 

3 they : i.e. God. 

4 to him: lit. "to his hand"; for the phrase *va men, cp. I Kings 
xx. 10. 

6 teaching (2) : Some authorities add " and observing," i.e. Torah 

U accomplish : i.e. works of Torah. 

7 B. Zadok : He lived during the first century A.D., while the Temple 
was still standing, and was thus a contemporary of Jochanan ben 

8 Make them not : i.e. the words of the Torah ; another, less 
authoritative, reading is : " Make it" (the Torah). The saying means 
that a man must not use the Torah for selfish ends. 

9 to glory in : lit. " wherewith to glorify thyself." 

iv 5 1 

nor a spade to dig with. 1 And in the same way - 
Hillel 3 said: "And he who uses 4 the Crown to his own 
advantage will perish." Behold, 5 whosoever profits 6 by 
the words of the Torah removes his life from the world. 7 

8. (10) Rabbi Jose 8 said: "Whosoever honours the Torah is 

himself 9 honoured by all men, 10 and whosoever dishonours 
the Torah is himself dishonoured by all men." 

9. (i i) Rabbi Ishmael, 11 his son, 12 said : " He that refrains from 

acting as judge 13 frees himself from enmity, 14 and theft, 15 

1 a spade to dig with : nnp (" spade ") occurs rarely in the O T. 
(i Sam. xiii. 20; Ps. Ixxiv. 5, "axe"), but more often in later Hebrew ; 
it was really a combination of a spade and an axe, one arm consisting 
of a broad blade like a hatchet, the other being pointed ; so that it is 
spoken of as being used for cleaving wood and also for breaking up 
the soil (see Nowack, Hebrdische Archaologie, i. 246 ; Krauss, ii. 642 ; 
and for other references Jastrow, s.v.}. Another reading, less authori 
tative, is : "a dish to eat of," which alters the metaphor, but not the 

a in the same way: -p "thus" = rD3 in the O.T., Exod. xii. 
11, etc. 

3 Hillel: See i. 12. 

4 he who uses . . . : See i. 13 and note. 

5 Behold . . .: Probably a later inseriion ; the readings vary. 
G whosoever profits : Reading rnnsn-k. 

7 from the world : See note on ii. 14. 

8 B. Jose : Usually referred to as R. Jose ben Chalaphta ; he lived 
during the greater part of the second century A.D. 

9 himself: IBIS, lit. "his body" or "his person." 

10 all men: rrra ; see note on "men," i. 12. 

11 R. Ishmael : He lived during the second part of the second, and 
beginning of the third, century. AN has "Bar Kappara"; one MS. 
reads " Rabbi Simeon." 

12 his son : Two authorities omit. 

13 from acting as judge : lit. " from judgement." 

14 from enmity : because the party against whom he pronounces 
judgement becomes his enemy. 

15 theft : because by an error of judgement he may condemn an 
innocent man to pay. 

E 2 

5 2 IV 

and false swearing j 1 and he that is arrogant 2 in (giving 
a) derision 3 is foolish, 4 wicked, and headstrong."- 

10. (12) He used to say : " Judge not alone, 5 for none may judge 
alone save One " ; 6 and " Say not : * Accept ye 7 my 
opinion, for (while) they are free 8 (to say this), thou art 

n. (13) Rabbi Jonathan 9 said: "Whosoever fulfils the Torah 
(when) in poverty 10 will in the end fulfil it in wealth ; and 
whosoever neglects the Torah (when) in wealth will in the 
end neglect it in poverty." 

1 false swearing : because he may, though unwillingly, be the 
cause of making a witness perjure himself. 

- he that is arrogant . . . headstrong : iab c:n, lit. " haughty as to 
his heart"; rmb on, lit. "haughty as to his spirit/ The root (no:) means 
" to be big," and then is used of one who makes himself big, i.e. haughty. 

3 decision: rwrn, not "teaching" here ; the context shows that the 
word is used in its technical sense of a judicial decision. 

4 foolish : The root >sir> means usually "to be demented." 

5 Judge not alone : In chap. i. of the Mishnic tractate Sanhedrin 
the rules are recorded giving the number of judges who presided over 
the different tribunals. For the provincial courts three was the 
minimum ; seven, and, in certain cases, twenty-three, w r ere recom 
mended ; in the great Sanhedrin there had to be seventy-one. 

6 save One: See Gen. xviii. 25 ; Ps. Ixxv. 7 ; Is. xxxiii. 22 ; c/>. 
2 Tim. iv. 8 ; Hebr. xii. 23. 

7 Say not : Accept ye . . . : No single judge was allowed to try to 
assert himself against his colleagues. 

8 they are free . . .: Where a majority were agreed they were free 
to try to induce one dissentient to agree with them, but not vice versa. 

<J R. Jonathan : This is in all probability the right reading ; two 
authorities read " R. Jochanan," and one has " R. Nathan." Accord 
ing to AN 30, this Rabbi is R. Jonathan, the son of Joseph, a pupil 
of R. Akiba. not the R. Jonathan the pupil of R. Ishmael, who is never 
mentioned in the Mishnah (Hoffmann) ; nevertheless, it is probably 
this latter who is meant here ; he lived during the middle portion of 
the second century A.D. 

J in poverty: ^ ; for this use of p (lit. " from ") cp. Jer. xxxi. 13 
(Strack) ; in Rabbinical writings it often has the sense of " when." It 
is also grammatically possible to translate "because of poverty"; but 
the general sense of the saying requires the former rendering ; cp. 
Luke vi. 21, 25 (Taylor). 

iv 53 

12. (14) Rabbi Meir 1 said: "Do little business, but be busy with 

the Torah " ; and " Be lowly of spirit 2 before all men " ; 
and " If thou hast been idle (in regard to) the Torah, 
many idle things 3 will stand in thy way ; but if thou 
labourest in the Torah, He 4 hath much reward to give thee." 

13. (15) Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob 5 said: "He who fulfils one pre 

cept (of the Torah) gains for himself one advocate, and he 
who commits one transgression (against the Torah) gains 
for himself one accuser. 7 Repentance 8 and good works 
are as a shield 9 against punishment." 10 

1 R. Meir : The greatest of R. Akiba s disciples ; he lived during 
the middle portion of the second century A.D. 

2 Be lowly of spirit : cp. Matt. xi. 29 ; see verse 4. 

3 many idle things : The idle mind is easily distracted by trifles, 
and therefore becomes unfit to concentrate itself on more serious 
thought. AN understands the reference to be to " idle persons." 

4 He : i.e. God. 

5 E. Eliezer b. J. : He lived in the second half of the second 
century A.D. ; a disciple of R. Akiba ; another of the same name, a 
disciple of R. Jochanan b. Zakkai, lived a little earlier. 

6 advocate : E^PE = Trapa/cAr/ros, a Johannine word ; cp. John xiv. 
1 6, 26 ; xv. 26 ; xvi. 7 ; I John ii. i. 

7 accuser : -na^p = Kar^yopos ; cp. Rev. xii. 10. 

8 Repentance . . . : cp. verse 22. The teaching on repentance 
Teshubah} occupies a prominent position in Rabbinical writings ; it 

is very often coupled with good works, one implying the other. Thus 
it is said in the Talmud that three books are opened on New Year s 
Day : the. righteous are inscribed, in one of these, for life ; the wicked, 
in another, for death ; while the intermediate, those who are neither 
good nor bad, remain in suspense until the Day of Atonement. By 
repentance and good works they can make the swaying balance incline 
in their favour (Rosh ha-Shana \*] b, Yebamoth 105 a}. In the Midrash, 
Shemoth Rabba xii. 4, it is said : " God says, My hands are stretched 
towards the penitent ; I thrust no one back who gives Me his heart in 
repentance." In another Midrash, Shir Rabba v. 2, it is said : "Open 
for Me a gateway of repentance as big as a needle s eye, and I will 
open for you gates wide enough for chariots and horses" (cp. Matt. 
xix. 24 ; Luke v. 32). 
!) shield : onn = Qvpfus ; cp. Eph. vi. 16. 

10 punishment : rn:niE, used mostly of divine retribution ; a non- 
Biblical word. 

54 iv 

i4- (16) Rabbi Jochanan 1 the Sandal-maker said : " Every assem 
bly 2 that (meets) in the name of Heaven 3 shall in the end 
be established ; and every (assembly) that (meets) not in 
the name of Heaven shall in the end not be established." 

15. (17) Rabbi Eleazar 4 said : "Let the honour of thy disciple be 

as dear to thee as the honour of thy associate, 5 and the 
honour of thy associate as the reverence for thy teacher, 
and the reverence for thy teacher as the fear of Heaven." 

16. (18) Rabbi Jehudah 6 said : " Be careful in the study (of the 

Torah), for error in the study 7 (of the Talmud) amounts 
to sin." 8 

1 E. Jochanan . . .: He lived in the middle of the second century 
A.D. ; a native of Alexandria, he became a disciple of R. Akiba. His 
worldly occupation, combined with Torah-study, recalls the word of 
Rabbi Gamliel in ii. 2 ; cp* St. Paul s Torah-study (Acts xxii. 3) 
with his worldly occupation (Acts xviii. 3). The sandal-maker 
(-1^:0 = o-ai/SuAupios 1 ) was quite distinct from the shoemaker (MBS^M) ; 
both callings were held in respect, and several Rabbis are mentioned 
as having combined them with their Torah-study. See further Krauss, 
i. pp. 176 f., 619. 

- assembly : HD^D (Kenisah} ; though used of assemblies in general, 
especially in the Targums, the word is mostly applied to religious 
meetings ; the regular name for a synagogue is no^rr m (beth ha- 
Keneseth\ "house of meeting." 

3 Heaven: One MS. and ^^40 read mso ("command" or "duty") 
each time. 

4 R. Eleazar: Some authorities read "Eliezer"; one MS. adds 
" ben Shammua." He was a disciple of R. Akiba, and lived during 
nearly the whole of the second century A.D. 

5 thy associate: One MS. reads, wrongly, "as thine own"; cp. 
ii. 13. 

6 R. Jehudah: Spoken elsewhere as "ben Illai "; he was a con 
temporary of R. Eleazar, and likewise a disciple of R. Akiba. 

7 in the study: lit. "in the Talmud": but this word, which means 
"learning," had, of course, not yet received the technical sense in 
which it has since been used, viz. as the combined Mishnah and 
(leinara (lit. "completion"). 

5 amounts to sin : chiefly because it may involve the handing on 
of erroneous teaching. 



i7- (19) Rabbi Simeon 1 said: "There are three crowns: the 
crown of Torah, 2 the crown of priesthood, 3 and the 
crown of kingship ; 4 but the crown of a good name 5 rises 
above them all." 

1 8. (20) Rabbi Nehorai 6 said: " Be a wanderer 7 to a place of the 
Torah s and say not that it shall come after thee 9 for 
(it is) thy associates 10 (who) will make it enduring n unto 
thee, and lean not upon thine own understanding. " 12 

1 E. Simeon : ben Jochai ; see iii. 4. 

2 the crown of Torah : See Lev. xix. 32 ; cp. i. 13 ; iv. 7 ; Prov. 
iv. 9- 

3 the crown of priesthood : cp. Lev. viii. 9 ; xxi. 8 ; i Pet. ii. 9. 

4 the crown of kingship : cp. Deut. xvii. 15. 

5 the crown of a good name : cp. Prov. xxii. i ; Eccles. vii. i ; and 
especially Sir. xli. 12, 13 : "Be in fear of thy name, for that abideth 
longer for thee than thousands of treasures of wisdom ; life s goods 
(last) for limited days, but the reward of a name for days without 
number" (Hebrew). 

6 R. Nehorai : He lived probably during the second half of the 
second century A.D. ; he is rarely mentioned, and practically nothing 
is known of him. 

7 Be a wanderer . . . : i.e. if in your own home there is no Torah- 
teaching. The word rfo means to go into captivity, the root significa 
tion being "to be uncovered," and thus it is use d of a land being made 
bare of its inhabitants ; then in an extended use of leaving home, or 
going into exile. 

8 a place of the Torah : i.e. a place where the Torah is taught. 

9 and say not . . . thee : These words are parenthetic ; the mean 
ing is that if a man lives in a place where there is no Torah taught 
and should therefore wander forth in search of such a place, he must 
do this because the Torah (i.e. those who can teach it) will not come 
to him. 

10 for (it is) thy associates . . . : i.e. it is by studying in company 
with others (cp. i. 6) that the intricacies of the Torah are examined 
and understood, and this is what makes it of enduring value to its 

11 will make it enduring : The root np is used of such things as 
an enduring name, a vow that is permanently valid, or of the decrees 
of Moses, which endure for ever. 

12 and lean . . .: Quoted from Prov. iii. 5. 

56 iv 

i<). (21) Rabbi Jannai 1 said: "We are unable to explain 2 either the 
prosperity of the wicked or the afflictions of the righteous." 

20. (22) Rabbi Mathiah ben Charash 3 said : "Be first in greeting 4 

every man " ; and " Be a tail to lions, and not a head 
to foxes." 5 

21. (23) Rabbi Jacob 6 said : "This world is like the vestibule 7 of 

the world to come ; 8 prepare thyself in the vestibule that 
thou mayest enter into the banqueting-hall." s 

22. 10 (24) He used to say: "Better is one hour (spent) in repentance 

1 R. Jannai : cp. iii. 10 and notes ; though it is possible that this 
Jannai is not the father of R. Dosthai, who lived early in the second 
century, but the Amora (" Interpreter " of the Law) of the same name 
who lived a century or so later. Scholars vary on the point. 

2 We are unable to explain: lit. "(it is) not in our hand"; the 
saying might mean: "We are not responsible for, etc."; but the 
rendering given above is probably correct. Hoffmann aptly quotes 
the phrase from T.B. Chullin \$a\ ^mr TI n, "this is known to us," 
lit. "this is in our hands." 

3 E. Mathiah b. C.: The spelling varies in the MSS. ; for Charash 
cp. i Chron. ix. 15 (Cheresh). He lived in Rome during the early and 
middle parts of the second century A.D. 

4 in greeting: lit. "to peace"; cp. Matt. x. 13; Luke x. 5 ; etc. 

5 Be a tail . . . : i.e. Be a follower of wise men, not a leader of 
mischievous rogues. In the Jerusalem Talmud (Sanhedrin iv. 22 b] 
we are told of a Rabbi who reversed this saying, viz. " Be a head to 
foxes, and not a tail to lions"; either maxim is apropos, according to 

6 R. Jacob : He lived in the second half of the second century A.D. 

the vestibule : i-mrc, formed from the gen. of ^ irpoa-Tas (Trpoora- 
Sos}. Another reading is TnrrE = ^poQvpov ("porch"). 

8 the world to come : See note on ii. 7. 

!) the banqueting-hall : ^p-c = T/oiJcAii/oy ; see note on iii. 23 ; cp. 
Luke xxiv. 30. 

9 This paradoxical saying may be paraphrased thus : A man can 
only in this world prepare himself for the world to come by means of 
repentance and good works ; so that if it were not for this world, there 
could, for him, be no question of the world to come ; nevertheless, as 
compared with the happiness of the world to come, this world is as 

IV 57 

and good works 1 in this world than all of the life in the 
world to come ; (yet) better is one hour of refreshment 
of spirit in the world to come than all the life of this 

23. (25) Rabbi Simeon ben Eleazar 2 said : "Seek not to pacify 3 

thy associate in the hour of his wrath; nor to comfort him 
when his dead (friend) is laid out before him ; nor 
question him 4 at the time of his (making a) vow ; nor 
strive to see him in the hour of his disgrace." 5 

24. (26) Samuel the Small 6 said: "Rejoice not when thine enemy 

falleth, and let not thy heart be glad when he stumbleth, 
lest the Lord see it, and it is evil in His eyes, and He turn 
away His wrath from him. " 7 

25. (27) Elisha ben Abujah s said : " He who learns as a lad, to 

1 repentance and good works : See note on verse 1 3 . 

2 R. Simeon b. E.: He lived during the latter part of the second, 
and early part of the third, century A.D. His father was the Eleazar 
mentioned in verse 15. He was a disciple of R. Meir. 

3 Seek not to pacify : This is the force of the form of the verb here 
used (nan). 

4 nor question him . . .: i.e. as to whether he is wise in making the 
vow ; or else as to whether he will be able to keep it. 

5 disgrace: or "humiliation," u dishonour"; whether through his 
own fault or that of others. 

6 Samuel the Small : So called on account of his humility ; he 
lived during the first century A.D. ; see further on him Herford, 
Christianity in Talmud and Midrash, pp. 127-135. 

7 Rejoice not. . .: Quoted from Prov.. xxiv. 17, 18. The MSS. 
vary slightly. 

& Elisha b. A.: He lived at the end of the first, and during the first 
half of the second, century A.D.; the teacher of R. Meir. A strange 
but interesting personality, he was at first ardent and orthodox, but 
later he developed heretical views ; in what particular direction his 
heterodoxy tended is uncertain ; scholars differ on the subject, some 
believing that he became a Gnostic, others that he was a follower 
of Philo, while yet others hold that he became a Christian. Although 
honoured by the Rabbis for his learning, they regarded him with 
horror, and he is generally referred to as dabar acher, " the other 
thing"; see further L. Ginzberg \\\JE v, 1386^ 

58 iv 

what is he like ? ! (He is like) unto ink 2 written on new 
paper. 3 And he who learns when old, to what is he like ? 
(He is like) unto ink written on paper which has been 
rubbed." 4 

26. (28) Rabbi Jose 5 ben Jehudah of Kephar ha-Babli 6 said: "He 

who learns from the young, to what is he like? (He is 
like) unto one that eats unripe grapes, 7 and drinks wine 
out of his vat. 8 And he who learns from the old, to what 
is he like ? (He is like) unto one that eats ripe grapes, 
and drinks old wine." 

27. (29) Rabbi 10 said: "Regard not the pitcher, but what is there 

in ; there is a new pitcher full of old (wine), and there is 
an old (pitcher) in which there is not even new (wine)." 11 

1 to what . . .: For the phrase cp. iii. 25. 

- ink: an (dejo)\ cp. Jer. xxxvi. 18, from the root rm, "to flow 
slowly"; it was made by mixing soot (gained by burning olive-oil and 
letting it smoke on to glass, which was then scraped) with a little oil ; 
this was then left in the sun to dry ; when the resulting hard black 
substance was required for writing it was moistened with a little olive- 
oil, and so became slightly fluid. See further Krauss, iii. 148 f. 

3 paper: ~n (nejar\ lit. "fibre," of which this "paper" was manu 
factured ; not papyrus, as Krauss has shown (iii. 146 f.). 

4 paper which has been rubbed : prra ; cp. the use of the word in 
Shabbath vii. 2 : "... he who rubs out in order to write over the 
erasure" (Jastrow). Taylor refers to ^A^xxiii. saying : " Learning in 
youth is also likened to graving upon stone, and learning in old age 
to tracing characters upon the sand." 

5 R. Jose . . .: He lived during the second half of the second, and 
early part of the third, century. 

c Kephar ha-Babli : A village in Galilee. 

7 unripe grapes : cp. Ezek. xviii. 2. 

8 wine out of his vat : i.e. wine not yet forty days old ; cp. Eduyotk 
vi. i, where it is said that wine must have been in the vat for at least 
forty days before it could be used for the altar as a libation. 

!) ripe grapes : cp. Joel iv. 13. 

10 Rabbi : See note on ii. i. 

11 Regard not. . .: In contrast to the preceding saying, this one 
teaches that it is not the age of a teacher, but how much he knows, 
that matters. 

!7 59 

28. (30) Rabbi Eleazar l ha-Kappar 2 said: "Jealousy, and lust, 

and ambition drive a man 3 out of the world." 

29. (31) He used to say : "Those who are born 4 (are destined) to 

die, and those who are dead to live again, 5 and those who 
live (after death) 6 to be judged ; that one may know, 7 
and make known, and that it be known, that God, He is 
the framer, He is the creator, He is the discerner, 8 He is 
the judge, He is the witness, He is the accuser; 9 and 
that He shall judge in the hereafter, 10 before whom there 
is no wrong-doing and no forgetting, and no respect of 
persons, and no taking of bribes, 11 for all is His. And 
(32) know that all is according to reckoning. 1 - And let not 

1 R. Eleazar: The MSS. vary, Eliezer, Liezer. He was a con 
temporary of " Rabbi." 

2 ha-Kappar : Meaning uncertain, perhaps "dealer in asphalt." 

3 drive a man . . .: cp. ii. 14. 

4 born: AN" formed." 

5 to live again : This is probably the best way to render the causa 
tive form of the verb here (ni rrnS); two MSS. read nvtib, "to live"; but 

the other reading, though more difficult grammatically, is more 

6 who live (after death) : i.e. the risen. 

7 that one may know. . .: i.e. that one may know from others, that 
one may make others know, and thus that it will be universally known 
that He is God, etc. In Hebrew this is expressed far more succinctly 
in three words : yrnri rninb yvV. " Truths which in this world men 
are taught and then teach others will in the world to come be known 
of themselves without a teacher, according to the prophetic description 
of the coming age : And they shall teach no more every man his 
neighbour, and every man his brother, saying, Know the Lord ; for 
they shall all know Me, from the least of them, unto the greatest of 
them, saith the Lord (Jer. xxxi. 34) ; c/>. i Cor. xiii. 12" (Taylor). 

8 discerner: See Ps. xxxiii. 15 (Hebrew). 

9 accuser : p bri, lit. " Lord of judgement " = accuser. 

10 in the hereafter : -ppy, a word expressive of the future ; some 
MSS. add "Blessed be He!" 

11 before whom . . . bribes : cp. 2 Chron. xix. 7. no wrong-doing 
and no forgetting : Two MSS. omit. 

12 ... reckoning : ptfn, cp. Eccles. vii. 27 ; and see iii. 23 above. 


thy (evil) imagination 1 persuade thee 2 that in Sheol 
there is a place of refuge; 3 for without thy will 4 thou 
wast formed, 5 and without thy will thou wast born, and 
without thy will thou livest, and without thy will thou 
diest, and without thy will thou shalt give an account 6 
and a reckoning before the King of the kings of kings, 7 
the Holy One- Blessed be He!" 8 


i. (i) BY ten sayings 10 was the world created. And what does 
the Scripture n teach (regarding this)? For could it not 

1 (evil) imagination : Yetzer ; see note on ii. 14. 

2 persuade thee: lit. "cause thee to trust." 

3 a place of refuge: lit. "a house of refuge"; AN "a house of 

4 without thy will : rra means "to force": and the adverb usually 
means "against one s will"; but it is also used in the sense of " with 
out one s will," which is often, as in the passage before us, more to 
the point. 

5 thou wast formed : cp. Jer. xviii. 5, 6. 
(i an account : AN omits. 

King of the kings of kings : This expression occurs in verse 14 
of the Psalm of Thanksgiving after Sir. li. 12, as found in the recently 
discovered Hebrew portions of the book: "Give thanks unto the 
King of the kings of kings : for His mercy endureth for ever." 

8 Blessed be He : cp. Rom. i. 5 ; ix. 5 ; 2 Cor. xi. 31. 

9 The sayings in this chapter are anonymous as far as v. 22 ; 
see further Introduction, I. 

lu By ten sayings : For this idea of tabulating various things by 
number, cp. e.g. Prov. vi. 16 : "There are six things which the Lord 
hateth ; yea, seven which are an abomination unto Him . . ." The 
world, as Taylor points out, is described as created by " sayings," 
because in Genesis the acts of creation begin by : "and God said"; 
cp. Ps. xxxiii. 9, 

11 what does the Scripture : This is the meaning, but not a transla 
tion, of the oft-recurring phrase : -raib -nn!?rmm ; it cannot be adequately 
rendered in English. 

v 6i 

have been created by one saying ? But (that it was 
created by ten sayings was) to punish ] the wicked who 
destroy the world that was created by ten sayings ; and 
to give a goodly reward to the righteous who uphold the 
world that was created by ten sayings. 2 

2. (2) Ten generations (there were) from Adam to Noah, 3 in 

order to show 4 how great was His longsuffering ; for all 
generations continued provoking Him 5 until He brought 
upon them the waters of the Flood. 

3. (3) Ten generations (there were) from Noah to Abraham, 6 in 

order to show how great was His longsuffering ; for all 
generations continued provoking Him until Abraham our 
lather 7 came and received the reward of them all. 8 

4. (4) With ten temptations 9 was Abraham our father tempted, 

1 to punish: lit. "that vengeance might he taken upon"; this is 
the force of the form of the verb used. 

2 But (that it was ...) .: The meaning is that since the import 
ance of God s work of creation was enhanced by the fact that it was 
created by ten sayings instead of one, therefore the sin is propor 
tionately greater on the part of those who by their wickedness destroy 
this beautiful work ; while, on the other hand, the reward is propor 
tionately greater for those who by their goodness uphold the world. 
It is interesting to notice in this passage the implied relationship 
between ethical and cosmic processes ; cp. Rom. viii. 19-23. 

3 from Adam to Noah : viz. Adam, Seth, Enosh, Kenan, Mahalalel, 
Jared, Enoch, Methuselah, Lamech, Noah (Gen. v. 1-31). 

4 to show . . .: cp. i Pet. iii. 20. 

5 continued provoking Him : For the form of the phrase (v:^ pDTttp) 
cp. . . . eVtoTTtoi/ at Tof;, Luke xv. 18 ; this form of expression is used in 
order to avoid as far as possible the anthropomorphic thought of God s 
anger with these people (Fiebig). With the passage generally cp. 
2 Pet. iii. 5, 6. 

c . . . from Noah to Abraham : viz. Shem, Arpachshad, Shelah, 
Eber, Peleg, Reu, Serug, Nahor, Terah, Abraham (Gen. xi. 10-26). 

7 Abraham our father : cp. Matt. iii. 9 ; John viii. 53 ; Rom. iv. i. 

s received the reward of them all : i.e. the reward that all of them 
together would have received, had they been righteous. 

tt With ten temptations . . .: These were, according to Maimo- 
nides: (i) Leaving his native place (Gen. xii. 1-5) ; (2) the famine in 

62 v 

and he withstood them all ; to show how great was the 
love of Abraham l our father. 

5. (5) Ten wonders 2 were wrought for our fathers in Egypt, 

and ten by the sea. 8 

6. (7) With ten 4 temptations did our fathers tempt God 5 in the 

wilderness, as it is said: "And they tempted 6 Me these 
ten times and have not hearkened unto My voice." 

7. (8) Ten wonders 7 were wrought for our fathers in the Sanctuary : 

(i) No woman miscarried from the smell of the holy meat ; 
(ii) and the holy meat never stank ; (iii) and no unclean- 
ness befell the high-priest on the Day of Atonement ; 

the land of Canaan (xii. 10) ; (3) Sarah in Pharaoh s house (xii. 14 ff.); 
(4) the battle with the four kings (xiv. 14 ff.); (5) Abraham s union 
with Hagar (xvi. 2) ; (6) the covenant of circumcision (xvii. 9, 10) ; 
(7) Sarah and Abimelech (xx. 2 ff.) ; (8) the casting-out of Hagar 
(xxi. 10) ; (9) the repudiation of Ishmael (xxi. 10) ; (10) the offering- up 
of Isaac (xxii. 9, 10) ; see further Hoffmann and Taylor in he. 

1 the love of Abraham : i.e. for God ; cp. Is. xii. 8 ; 2 Chron. xx. 7; 
James ii. 23. 

2 Ten wonders . . . : i.e.. the ten plagues. The word for " wonder" 
here is c:, lit. "an ensign" in Biblical Hebrew ; it means a sign, in the 
sense of a wonder, in neo-Hebrew. 

3 ten by the sea : There are quaint legends about these in ancient 
Rabbinical writings, viz. AN xxxiii. 2 ; Midrash Mechilta on Exod. 
xv. 8 ; Pirke de Rabbi Eliczcr xlii. ; and in Maimonides ; see Hoff 
mann and Taylor /// loc. At the end of this verse this later addition 
is inserted : "Ten plagues did the Holy One Blessed be He ! bring 
upon the Egyptians in Egypt, and ten by the sea." 

4 With ten . . .: viz. according to Maimonides : (i) At the Red Sea 
(Exod. xiv. ii); (2) in Marah (xv. 24); (3) in the wilderness of Sin (xvi. 
2); (4) regarding the manna (xvi. 20) ; (5) the gathering of manna on 
the Sabbath (xvi. 27) ; (6) in Rephidim (xvii. 2) ; (7) the golden calf 
(xxxii. i); (8) in Taberah (Num. xi. i); (9) in Kibroth-hattaavah (xi. 4); 
(10) the murmuring against Moses and Aaron (xiv. 2ff) (Hoffmann). 

5 God : " Makom"; see note on ii. 13. 

6 And they tempted : Num. xiv. 22. 

7 Ten wonders . . .: These offer a good example (of many) of the 
curious legends current among the Jews already in the early centuries 
of Christianity and preserved in various Rabbinical writings. 

v 6 3 

(iv) and no fly 1 was seen in the slaughter-house ; (v) and 
no defect was found in the sheaf, 2 nor in the two loaves, :] 
nor in the shewbread; 4 (vi) and rains quenched not the 
fire 5 of the wood 6 for the altar; (vii) and no wind 
prevailed against the pillar of smoke ; 7 (viii) (though) 
they stood 8 pressed together (yet) they bowed down 
(to worship) at ease; 9 (ix) and no serpent or scorpion 
harmed 10 (any) in Jerusalem ; (x) and no man said to 
his neighbour, "The place is too strait for me," 11 that I 
may lodge 1 - in Jerusalem. 

8. (9) Ten things were created between the suns; 13 and they are 

I fly : zebub ; cp. Matt. x. 25, etc. 

- sheaf: Corner ; see Lev. xxiii. 10-14. 

3 the two loaves : See Lev. xxiii. 17. 

4 the shewbread : See Exod. xxv. 30 ; Lev. xxiv. 5-9. 

5 the fire : Some MSS. omit. 

c the wood: m-i^nn, from -pss "to lay in order"; the word is 
used technically of the pile of wood on the altar in the Temple ; cp. 
Gen. xxii. 9 ; Lev. i. 7. The same word is used in a different con 
nexion of soldiers in the battle-line (Jastrow). 

7 the pillar of smoke : i.e. the smoke that rose up from sacrifice 
on the altar ; it is said that this always ascended straight up and then 
spread out, " like a palm-tree," T.B.Joma 21 b (Hoffmann). 

8 they stood : i.e. the congregation. 

9 at ease: lit. "extended," orm ; theroot = "to be wide," "roomy," 
and then "to be at ease." 

10 harmed: It is from this root pu that the word for "demons," 
tnazzikin % is derived ; see note on next verse. 

II The place . . .: Is. xlix. 20. 

ia that I may lodge: pb means "to pass the night"; cp. Gen. 
xxxii. 22. 

13 ... created between the suns : See the almost identical words 
of this saying in Pirke de R. Eliezer xviii. These ten very special 
things, as well as the additional things mentioned at the end of the 
verse, are not spoken of as having been created on any of the six days 
of the Creation, and on the Sabbath day they could not have been 
created, so the Rabbis got over the difficulty by saying that they were 
created in the twilight ("between the suns"), after sunset on the last 
day o/ Creation, and before the rising of the Sabbath sun. The 
traditional explanation is that at the moment between the end of 


these : (i) The mouth of the earth ; l (ii) and the (mouth 
of the) well ; (iii) and the mouth of the she-ass ; (iv) and 

Creation and the beginning of the Sabbath God implanted in the 
powers of Nature the capability of producing all these tilings when the 
time should have arrived at which they would be required. 

1 the mouth of the earth : See Num. xvi. 32 : ". . . and the earth 
opened her mouth, and swallowed them up . . ." That this was 
regarded by the Rabbis as a special creation is well brought out by 
the paraphrase in the Targum of Onkclos on Num. xvi. 28 ff.: "And 
Moses said, By this shall ye know that the Lord hath sent me to do 
all these works, and that I have not done them from the thoughts of 
my heart. . . . But if a death which hath not been created since the 
clays of the world be now created for them, and if a mouth for the 
earth, which hath not been made from the beginning, be created now, 
and the earth open her mouth, and swallow them, and all that they 
have, and go down alive into Sheol, you will understand that these 
men have provoked the Lord to anger." Our passage speaks next 
of " the mouth of the well," There is an ancient Jewish legend which 
says that for Miriam s sake (the sister of Moses) a marvellous well 
accompanied the Israelites ; it was a rock which contained this well, 
and which followed the Israelites wherever they went. In the Targum 
of Onkelos on Num. xxi. 16-1 8 (which contains the " Song of the Well") 
it is said : "And from thence (i.e. from Beer, which means a well ) 
was given to them the living well, the well concerning which the Lord 
said to Moses, Assemble the people and give them water. Then, 
behold, Israel sang the thanksgiving of this song, at the time that the 
well which had been hidden was restored to them, through the merit 
of Miriam . . ."; further, in the Midrash Rabba on Num. i. i, which, 
though of much later date, contains many ancient elements, it says 
that the Israelites had a well "through the merit of Miriam," and it is 
described thus : " It was a crag like a bee-hive, and it used to roll 
along and accompany them on their journeyings. And when the 
standards were pitched, and the Tabernacle rested, the crag came and 
settled in the court of the tent of meeting, and the princes came and 
stood beside it, and said, Spring up, O well, and then it would 
spring up" (cp. Num. xxi. 17, 18). it is this ancient legend that 
St. Paul utilises when he says in i Cor. x. 1-4 : ". . . for they drank of a 
spiritual rock that followed them ; and that rock was Christ." In our 
passage it is the mouth of this well which is referred to. Then it 
speaks of "the mouth of the she-ass"; that is, of course, a reference 
to Num. xxii. 28 : "And the Lord opened the mouth of the ass." It 
is interesting to note in passing that, in the Targum of Onkelos on this 
passage, the verse from Pirke Aboth with which we are dealing is 

v 65 

the (rain-)bow ; (v) and the manna ; (vi) and the rod ; 
(vii) and Shamir ; (viii) and the form of writing ; (ix) and 
the manner of writing; 1 (x) and the Tables. 2 And 
there are those who say, in addition to these, the Demons, 3 

inserted in the text, though the ten things differ slightly in this text. 
Then, the rainbow, the manna, and the rod (of Moses) (cp. Gen. ix. 13 ; 
Exod. xvi. 15 ; Exod. iv. 17) are spoken of; these require no com 
ment. But the next thing, Shamir, demands a little notice. In 
Exod. xx. 25 the prohibition is uttered : " If thou make Me an altar 
of stone, thou shalt not build it of hewn stones ; for if thou lift up thy 
tool upon it, thou hast polluted it" (cp. Deut. xxvii. 6 ; Josh. viii. 31). 
The reason for this prohibition was because altars were originally 
pieces of rough stone or rock in which a deity was believed to have 
taken up his abode ; its holiness was derived, not from the fact that a 
god was already in it, but because he had consented to take up his 
abode in the stone or rock which had been previously chosen for him. 
But it was not permitted to change the natural form of such stone in 
any way, for it was believed that in that case the god would look upon 
it as having been polluted.* The idea is a very primitive one, but it 
crops up now and again in the Old Testament ; it lies at the root of 
what we read in I Kings vi. 7 about the building of Solomon s temple : 
"And the house, when it was in building, was built of stone made 
ready at the quarry, and there was neither hammer nor axe nor any 
tool of iron heard in the house while it was in building." In later days, 
when the love of the marvellous grew, it was said that Solomon had 
been able to dispense with iron for hewing the stones into shape for 
his temple, because he had discovered a wonderful worm, called 
Shamir, which had the power of splitting stones and rocks. The 
word is used of a "diamond" and "flint"; in T.B. Gittin 68 a, it is 
said that Moses used Shamir for cutting the jewels of the Ephod 
(Jastrow) ; see further Cassel, Schamir, ein archaologischcr Beitrag 
zur Natur- und Sagenkunde. 

1 the form of writing and the manner . . . : in^prn nron ; the 
former refers to the single letters, the latter to their combination in 
writing, i.e. sentences. 

2 the Tables : See Exod. xxiv. 12, etc. 

3 the Demons : Mazzikin " the harmful ones," as the root im- 

* The reason given in the Mishnah (Middoth iii. 4), that iron is used to 
shorten life, the altar to prolong it, and that it would therefore be unfitting 
to use iron for the building of an altar, is, of course, nonsense in view of the 
fact that there was a brazen altar in Solomon s temple (i Kings viii. 64). 

66 v 

and the sepulchre of Moses, 1 and the ram of Abraham 2 
our father. And there are those who say, in addition to 
these, the tongs, 3 made with tongs. 

9. (10) Seven things (there are) in an ignorant man, 4 and seven 
in a wise man. (i) A wise man speaks not in the presence 
of one who is greater than he in wisdom ; (ii) and does 
not break in when his associate speaks ; 5 (iii) and is not 
hasty in returning answer; (iv) he asks according to 
rule, 6 and answers to the point ; (v) and he speaks about 
the first (point) first, and on the last (one) last ; (vi) and 
of what he has not heard he says : "I have not heard "; 
(vii) and he acknowledges the truth. And their opposites 
are in the ignorant man. 

10. (i i) Seven kinds of punishment come upon the world 7 for seven 
categories of transgression : (i) When part (of the people) 
give tithes and part do not give tithes, famine from 
drought comes ; some are hungry and some have enough, 
(ii) When they have not given tithes at all, 8 dearth from 

plies ; this is the most general term for them, though various other 
grades of them are mentioned in the Talmud and kindred writings : 
shedim " evil genii," an Assyrio-Bab. loan-word ; ////;/, probably evil 
spirits of the night, also from the Assyrio-Bab.; and rttcfrin = u spirits"; 
on the whole subject of the Jewish belief in demons see Blau, Das 
altjiidische Za uberwesen. 

1 the sepulchre of Moses : cp. Deut. xxxiv. 4 ; two authorities add 
" our master." 

- the ram of Abraham : cp. Gen. xxii. 13. 

:i the tongs . . .: Strack refers to T.B. Pesachim 54*2 : " One pair 
of tongs is made with another. But who made the first pair ? " i.e. 
it must have been created by God. 

4 an ignorant man : L?>, lit. " an unformed mass," and so of an 
uncultured man ; in Ps. cxxxix. 16 the word is used of the babe unborn. 

5 when his associate speaks : lit. " in the midst of the words of 
his associate." 

G rule: halakah\ see note on iii. 26. Another reading has the 
sense that "his questions are such as are really relevant." 

7 upon the world : Some authorities omit. 

8 When they have not ... at all : lit. "When they have completed 
not to give . . ,," from root -^3 ; see note on p. 54. 

tumult * [and from drought] comes. (Hi) And when they 
have not offered the dough 2 an all-consuming 3 dearth 

(12) comes, (iv) Pestilence comes into the world for crimes 
worthy of death 4 recorded in the Law (Torah) which are 
not brought before the tribunal, 5 and because of the 

(13) seventh-year fruits. 6 (v) The sword comes upon the 
world because of the postponement 7 of justice 8 and for 
the perversion 9 of justice ; 8 and because of those who 
explain the Torah not according to the right way. 10 

(14) (vi) Noisome beasts come into the world because of false 
swearing and because of the profanation of the Name. 11 
(vii) Exile comes upon the world because of those who 
offer strange worship, 12 and because of incest, and because 
of the shedding of blood, and because of the " release " 13 
of the land. 

ii. (15) At four periods the pestilence increases: (i) In the fourth 
(year), (ii) and in the seventh (year), (iii) and at the 

1 tumult : The reference is to war. 

2 the dough : of which the " cake for the heave-offering " was 
made ; see Num. xv. 20. 

:: all-consuming : rra = " extinction " : the root rrb = " to cease," 

4 crimes worthy of death : n-irro ; the word rrcra means " death 
penalty"; but here the " crimes " for which this is inflicted is under 

" the tribunal: p rra, lit. "the house of judgement." 

because of the . . . fruits : i.e. if these are used for merchandise 
instead of being treated as holy according to the commandment ; see 
Exod. xxiii. 10, ii ; Lev. xxv. 1-7. 

7 postponement : nrr, from the root rcy n. 

8 justice : p, lit. "judgement," in each case. 

9 perversion : rmy, a noun from rny ; cp. Job viii. 3 : " Doth God 
pervert (n?r) judgement . . . ?" 

10 the right way : halakah ; see note on iii. 26 ; i.e. forbidding that 
which is allowed, and allowing that which is forbidden. 

11 profanation of the Name : See note on iv. 5. 

12 Strange worship : Abodah Zarah, i.e. idolatry. 

13 " release ": Shemitta ; the reference is to the neglect of the laws 
concerning land in the Sabbatical year and in the year of jubilee ; see 
Lev. xx vi. 34 f. 

F 2 

68 v 

ending l of the seventh (year), (iv) and at the ending of 
the feast 2 in every year. In the fourth (year) because 
of the tithe of the poor 3 in the third (year); in the 
seventh (year) because of the tithe of the poor in the 
sixth (year); 4 and at the ending of the seventh (year) 
because of the fruits 5 of the seventh (year) ; and at the 
ending of the feast in every year because of the robbery 
of the gifts 6 of the poor. 

(16) (There are) four types of character 7 in men : (i) He who 
says : " Mine is mine, and thine is thine," that is a 
moderate 8 type some say it is the Sodom type 9 of 
character ; (ii) (he who says) : " Mine is thine, and thine 
is mine," (that is what the) l am ha-aretz 10 (say) ; (iii) (he 
who says) : " Mine is thine, and thine is thine," (that is 
what the) Chasid 11 (says); (iv) (he who says): "Thine is 
mine, and mine is mine," (that is what the) wicked man 

I at the ending : lit. " in the goings-out." 

- the feast : i.e. Succoth, the feast of Tabernacles ; the " feast ol 
ngathering" (Exod. xxiii. 16). 

a the tithe of the poor . . . : on account of its not having been 
paid ; see Deut. xiv. 28. 

4 in the seventh . . . sixth : The tithe for the poor had to be paid 
in the third and sixth years in the seven-year cycle. 

5 because of the fruits . . . : i.e. on account of neglecting to 
" release" the fruits in the preceding year ; see Exod. xxiii. 10, u. 

6 the robbery of the gifts . . . : The reference is to neglect of 
the commands given in Lev. xix. 9 ; Deut. xxiv. 19. 

7 types of character: Middoth lit. "measures" in Bibl. Hebrew; 
in neo-Hebrew the word has a wide signification, "manner," "quality," 
"kind," etc. 

8 moderate: lit. "between," "intermediate"; i.e. neither good nor 

9 Sodom type : "Behold, this was the iniquity of thy sister Sodom ; 
pride, fullness of bread, and prosperous ease was in her and in her 
daughters ; neither did she strengthen the hand of the poor and 
needy " (Ezek. xvi. 49). 

10 am ha-aretz : See note on ii. 6. 

II Chasid : See note on ii. 6. 

v 69 

I 3- 1 ( r ?) (There are) four types of character regarding disposition: 2 
(i) (He who is) easily provoked and easily pacified ; his 
loss is cancelled by his gain. 3 (ii) (He who is) hard 
to provoke and hard to pacify; his gain is cancelled 
by his loss. 3 (iii) (He who is) hard to provoke and 
easily pacified; (he is) a Chasid. (iv) (He who is) 
easily provoked and hard to pacify; (he is) a wicked 

14. (18) (There are) four types of character in scholars : (i) (He 

who is) quick to hear and quick to forget; his gain is 
cancelled by his loss, (ii) (He who is) slow to hear and 
slow to forget ; his loss is cancelled by his gain, (iii) (He 
who is) quick to hear and slow to forget ; (he is) a wise 
man. (iv) (He who is) slow to hear and quick to forget ; 
such a man (has) a sad 4 lot. 

15. (19) (There are) four types of character among those who give 

alms : 5 (i) He who is willing to give himself, but not 
that others G should give ; his eye 7 is evil towards that 
which belongs to others, (ii) (He who is willing) that 
others should give, while he (himself) gives not ; his eye 
is evil towards his own (belongings), (iii) He who gives 
and (is willing that) others should give ; (he is) a Chasid. 
(iv) He who gives not, nor (desires) others to give ; (he 
is) an evil man. 

1 Some authorities place this verse after verse 14. 

2 disposition : or "temperament"; plur. in Hebr.; rim = lit. "know 
ledge," then a man s view of, or attitude towards, things, and so his 
general disposition, or habit of life. 

3 his loss . . . gain: "A various reading interchanges the words 
loss and gain, 3 and thus reverses the estimates of the first and 
second tempers " (Taylor). 

4 sad : lit. "evil." 

5 alms: lit. "righteousness" (zedakah} ; almsgiving is righteous 
ness par excellence. 

6 but not that others . . .: i.e. he alone wants to have the credit. 

7 his eye . . .: i.e. he is envious of others because they have the 
wherewithal to give alms. 

yo v 

1 6. (20) (There are) four types of character among those who 

frequent the house of learning: 1 (i) He who goes (there), 
but does not practise ; 2 the reward 3 of his going is in 
his hand, (ii) He who practises, but does not go ; the 
reward of his practice is in his hand. 4 (iii) He who goes 
and practises : (he is) a Chasid. (iv) He who neither 
goes nor practises ; (he is) an evil man. 

17. (21) (There are) four types of character among those who sit 5 

in the presence of the wise : a sponge, 6 and a funnel, a 
strainer, and a sieve. 7 A sponge (is he) who sucks up 
all; a funnel (is he) who takes in on one side and lets 
out on the other ; a strainer (is he) who lets out the wine 
and retains the dregs ; a sieve (is he) who lets out the 
coarse meal and retains the fine flour. 

18. (22) All love that depends on a transient thing 8 (of such it 

may be said), when the thing has ceased, the love ceases 

(too) ; but (the love) that depends not on a transient 

(23) thing never ceases. What is that love which depends on 

a transient thing? The love of Amnon and Tamar. 9 

1 the house of learning: Beth ha-Midrash. One MS. omits 
"house of." 

2 does not practise : i.e. what he learns there. 

3 the reward . . .: i.e. his reward corresponds with his action ; for 
the thought cp. Matt. x. 41. 

4 He who practises, but ... his hand : Two MSS. omit. 

5 those who sit . . . : See note on i. 4. 

6 a sponge : :ICD = o-noyyos ; cp. Matt, xxvii. 48. 

7 a sieve : cp. Is. xxx. 28 ; it was made of coarse hair, and used for 
sifting flour from the husks. But from the words which follow at the 
end of the saying : ". . . who lets out the coarse meal and retains the 
fine flour," it is obvious that a sieve in the ordinary sense of the word 
cannot be intended here, since this would retain the coarse meal and 
let out the fine flour. The word rendered "sieve," ns:, is used in the 
Talmud, among other things, of a small "basket" in which women, 
whilst combing their hair, placed the hairs which fell out ; see Krauss, 
i. 656. Probably some basket of this kind is meant. 

8 a transient thing: This is the force of the word (-Q-,, lit. "thing") 

9 Amnon and Tamar : See 2 Sam. xiii. 

And (what love is) that which depends not on a transient 
thing ? The love of David and Jonathan. 

19. (24) Every controversy 1 which is for the name 2 of Heaven 

will in the end be profitable; 3 and (every controversy) 
which is not for the name of Heaven will not in the end 
(25) be profitable. What is a controversy which is for the 
name of Heaven? The controversy of Shammai and 
Hillel. 4 And (what is a controversy which is) not for 
the name of Heaven ? The controversy of Koran 5 and 
all his congregation. 6 

20. (26) Whosoever makes the many 7 righteous, sin prevails not 

over him ; 8 and whosoever makes the many to sin, 
(27) they 9 grant him not the power to repent. 10 Moses was 
righteous 11 and made many righteous, 11 and the righteous 
ness n of many depended on him, as it is said : " He 
executed the justice of the Lord, and his judgements with 
Israel." 12 Jerobeam sinned and made the many to sin, 
(and) the sin of the many depended on him, as it is said : 
" Because of the sins of Jerobeam who sinned and who 
made Israel to sin." 13 

1 controversy: lit. "division" (of opinion). 

2 for the name . . .: The reference is to a discussion which has for 
its object the establishing of some divine truth ; it is thus intended to 
be for the honour and glory of God. 

3 profitable : lit. " will have success," i.e. in so far as the know 
ledge of the truth is furthered by the discussion. 

4 Shammai and Hillel : See note on i. 12. Some authorities read 
" Hillel and Shammai." 

5 Korah : cp. Jude n. 

" and all his congregation : Some authorities omit. 
7 the many . . .: c rn = ol TroXXoi ; cp. Rom. v. 19. 
s sin prevails not over him : cp. James v. 19, 20. 
" they : i.e. God. 

10 to repent : lit. " to do repentance." 

11 righteous, made righteous, righteousness: These all come from 
the root mi (ZakaJi) ; on Zecuth, more strictly "merit," see note on ii. 2. 

- He executed the justice . . .: Deut. xxxiii. 21 ; "justice" in the 
Hebrew of this passage is npT? ("righteousness") ; cp. Hebr. iii. 2 ff. 

13 Jerobeam . . . Israel to sin : One MS. omits. Because of . . . : 
i Kings xiv. 6 ; xv. 30. 

72 v 

21. (28) In whomsoever there are three things, he 1 (belongs) to 

the disciples of 2 Abraham our father ; 3 and in whom 
soever 4 these three things are not, he (belongs) to the 
(29) disciples of Bileam 5 the wicked: 6 a good eye, and a 
lowly soul, and a humble spirit (belong) to the disciples 
of Abraham our father ; an evil eye, an ambitious soul, 
and a haughty spirit (belong) to the disciples of Bileam 
the wicked. And what is (the difference) between the 
disciples of Abraham our father and the disciples of 
Bileam the wicked? The disciples of Bileam the wicked 
go down to Gehinnom, 7 as it is said : " But Thou, O God, 
shalt bring them down into the pit of destruction ; 
bloodthirsty and deceitful men shall not live out half 
their days." 8 But the disciples of Abraham our father 
shall inherit the Garden of Eden, as it is said: "That I 
may cause those that love Me to inherit substance, and 
that I may fill their treasuries." 9 

22. (30) Jehuda ben Tema 10 said : " Be strong as a leopard, and 

swift as an eagle, and fleet as a hart, and courageous as a 
lion, to do the will of thy Father which is in Heaven." u 

1 he : In the plur. in Hebrew, Mrr = crrn and rbxn in the O.T. ; the 
sing, is rrVr. One MS. omits ; another reads for it "good," i.e. "three 

good things." 

2 the disciples of: One MS. omits. 

3 our father: Several authorities omit, both here and below. 

4 and in whomsoever. . .: There are unimportant variations in 
the MSS. in the latter part of this saying. 

> the disciples of Bileam: cp. 2 Pet. ii. 15 ; Jude 11 ; Rev. ii. 14. 
the wicked : Some authorities omit, both here and below. 

7 Gehinnom: Some authorities have : "inherit G." and add : "and 
go down to the pit of destruction." 

8 But Thou . . .: Is. lv. 24 (Hebr.) ; some authorities omit "blood 
thirsty . . . days." 

9 That I may cause . . .: Prov. viii. 21. 

10 Jehuda ben T. : He lived probably during the second half of 
the second century A.D., or a little later. Some authorities prefix 
" Rabbi. 73 He is mentioned in the Talmud as one learned in the 

11 thy Father which is in Heaven : cp. Matt. vi. 9, etc. 

v 73 

23- 1 (3 1 ) He used to say: "The fierce of countenance 2 for 
Gehinnom, and the modest of countenance 3 for the 
Garden of Eden." 

May it be well-pleasing in Thy sight, O Lord our God 
and God of our fathers, 4 that Thy city be built 5 in our 
days, and that Thou give 6 (us) our portion in Thy Law, 
with them that do Thy will. 

[24. 7 He used to say : " At five years, 8 the Scrip 
tures ; 9 at ten, the Mishnah ; at thirteen, the 
commandments; 10 at fifteen, the Talmud; 11 
at eighteen, marriage ; 12 at twenty, the seeking 
(of sustenance for wife and child) ; at thirty, 
strength ; 13 at forty, discernment ; at fifty, 
counsel ; at sixty, mature age ; at seventy, old 

I AN omits this saying. 

- The fierce of countenance : ir:e iy, Deut. xxviii. 50 ; i.e. such as 
are haughty and boastful. 

3 the modest of countenance : D<:E MTO, i.e. the humble-minded (lit. 
"shamefast of faces"). 

4 and God of our fathers : Some authorities omit. 
built : One authority adds " quickly." 

and that Thou give . . .: One MS. omits from here to the end 
of the saying. 

7 This saying is omitted by several authorities ; it is a latei 


8 At five years : i.e. at this age the child is ripe for reading the 


9 the Scriptures : Mikra, lit. " Reading," a technical word for the 
Bible ; cp. the word Koran^ with which it is radically connected. 

10 the commandments : At thirteen years old a boy is made " Bar 
Mitzvah," lit. "a son of the commandment"; it is a ceremony correspond 
ing to Confirmation in the modern Anglican Church, the Laymg-on of 
hands being now divorced from Baptism ; cp. Luke n. 41 n- 

II Talmud : Here this word is used in the later sense in which we 
now understand it. 

12 marriage : Chuppah = the "canopy" under which the marriage 
ceremony is performed; cp. Ps. xix. 5 (Hebr.) : "And he is like a 
bridegroom going forth from his Chuppah 

13 strength : Based on Num. iv. 3 : ". . . from thirty years^old and 
upward, even until fifty years, all that enter upon the service. 

74 v-vi 

age ; at eighty, hoary age ; l at ninety, bending ; 
at a hundred, like one that is dead, and has 
passed and disappeared from the world."] 

25. (32) Ben Bag-Bag 2 said : "Turn it, 3 and turn it again ; and 
meditate therein; 4 for all things are in it. And look 
into it; 5 become grey and old in it; and move not 
away 6 from it ; there is no better guide T for thee than 

26. 8 (33) Ben He-He said : "According to the labour, so is the 

The Chapter on the Acquisition of the Torah 10 

i. WISE men have taught in the language ot the Mishnah. 
Blessed is He who chose them and their teaching ! n 

1 hoary age: geburah = lit. "might"; here it means a "mighty 
age"; cp. Ps. xc. 10, where the same expression occurs. 

2 Ben Bag-Bag: A fictitious name, like Ben He-He ; A N ascribes 
both sayings to Hillel. 

3 it : lit. " in it"; the reference is to the Torah. 

4 and meditate therein : Some authorities omit. 

5 look into it : cp. James i. 25. 

move not away : rn is an Aramaic word. 

7 guide : middah, lit. " measure," " rule " (of conduct) ; see note on 

V. 12. 

8 This saying is in Aramaic ; cp. with it i Cor. iii. 8 : " Each shall 
receive his own reward according to his own labour." But in the 
saying here the reference is to the Torah. The treatise ends with this 

9 On the place of this chapter in the tractate, see Introduction, I. 

10 the Acquisition of the Torah : The Hebrew is Kinvan ha- Tor ah > 
the name by which this chapter is known. 

11 Wise men . . . teaching : This is in the nature of a sub-title to the 
chapter. teaching : lit. Mishnah. 

VI 75 

(i) Rabbi Meir l said: "Whosoever is occupied in the 
Torah for its own sake merits many things; and not 
(only this), but he is worth the whole world besides. He 
is called the friend (of God), (he is) beloved (of God) ; 
he loves God, 2 he loves mankind; he pleases God, he 
pleases mankind ; 3 and it clothes him 4 with humility 
and fear, and fits him to become righteous and pious, 5 
upright and faithful; and puts him far from sin, and 
brings him near to the side of merit. 6 And they gain 7 
from him counsel and sound wisdom, 8 discernment and 
strength ; as it is said : * Counsel is mine and sound 
wisdom, I am understanding, I have strength. 9 And it 
gives him 10 a kingdom, 11 and dominion, 1 2 and discern 
ment of judgement, and they reveal to him the secrets 
of Torah. 13 And he is made like a well 14 that ceases 
not, and like a river that grows ever mightier; and he 
becomes modest, 15 and longsuffering, and forgiving of 

1 R. Meir : See note on iv. 12. 

2 he loves God : The word used is Makom ; so, too, below : " he 
pleases God"; see ii. 13. 

3 he pleases . . . mankind : One MS. omits. mankind : rvran ; 
see note on i. 12. 

4 it clothes him : i.e. the Torah clothes him who is occupied in it 
for its own sake ; cp. r Pet. v. 5 : "... be clothed with humility." 

5 pious : One MS. omits. 

side of merit : lit. "hands of merit" (Zecuth ; see note on ii. 2). 

r they gain . . .: i.e. his fellow-creatures. 

8 sound wisdom : tushiyyah ; cp. Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer iii.: ". . . at 
once the Lord took counsel with the Torah, whose name is tushiyyah, 
as to creating the world"; also in reference to Prov. viii. 14. 

;| Counsel is mine . . .: Prov. viii. 14. 

10 And it gives him . . .: cp. Prov. viii. 15 f. 

11 a kingdom : One MS. reads " life." 

12 dominion: Two MSS. read "great dominion. 1 

13 the secrets of Torah : p (" secret ") means in the deepest " foun 
dation," something- that lies at the bottom of things ; it = the Biblical 
-no, e.g. Ps. xxv. 14 : "The secret of the Lord is with them that fear 

14 And he is made like a well . . .: cp. John vii. 38 : " Out of his 
belly shall flow rivers of living water." 

15 modest : For the Hebrew word $33 cp. Micah vi. 8 ; Prov. xi. 2, 

7 6 vi 

insult. And it magnifies him and exalts him over all 

2. (2) Rabbi Jehoshua ben Levi l said: "Every day a Bath-Kol 2 
goes forth from Mount Horeb, and makes proclamation, 
saying : Woe to you mankind that despise the Torah ; 
whosoever does not occupy himself with the Torah is 
called banned, 3 as it is said : As a golden nose-ring in 
a swine s snout is a fair woman without discretion. 4 
And it says (elsewhere) : And the tables were the work 
of God, and the writing was the writing of God, graven 
upon the tables ; 5 read not 6 Charuth, but Cheruth? 

1 E. Jehoshua b. L.: He lived in the middle of the third century 
A.D. His home was in Lydda. 

2 Bath-Kol : lit. " daughter voice." This expression means a 
divine utterance audibly proclaimed ; it is often spoken of in Rab 
binical writings, and is said to have made itself heard in a variety 
of ways, sometimes being as loud as the roaring of a lion, at other 
times as soft as the voice of a dove. When a Bath-Kol speaks, 
according to Rabbinical teaching, it is always in few words, and these 
are generally taken from Scripture ; and it is said that the Bath-Kol 
is the voice of the Holy Spirit (T.B. Sotah 33 tf, Shobbath 88 a). With 
very few exceptions the Bath-Kol is always said to proceed from 
Heaven ; cp. Matt. iii. 13-17 ; Mark ix. i-u ; Luke iii. 21, 22 ; and 
see also Matt. xvii. 5 ; Mark ix. 7 ; Luke ix. 35 ; John xii. 28-30 ; 
Acts ix. 3-7 ; x. 13, 1 6 ; Rev. x. 4 ; xiv. 13. 

3 banned : The root rp: means " to reprimand," but the passive 
participle is generally used of being " placed under the ban " or 
"excommunicated." There is a play on the word here, viz. naziiph, 
" banned," and nez(ein be-}aph, " a nose-ring in the snout." 

4 As a golden . . . : Prov. xi. 22. 

5 And the tables . . .: Exod. xxxii. 16. graven: nnn, Charuth, 
from the root rnrr. 

6 read not : " The exegetical device np n to, Read not so, but so, 
is often used in the Talmud when it is desired to attach a precon 
ceived idea to a Scriptural expression by way of pvripotrwov. The 
np-n to is not to be taken as evidence that an actual various reading 
was current. The words to which it is prefixed are confessedly the 
true reading, with which the darshan [ interpreter ] makes free for a 
special purpose " (Taylor). 

7 Cheruth : " freedom," from the root -nn n.; see note on ii. 19. It 
is obvious that the text was unpointed. 

vi 77 

for thou wilt find no free-man but he is occupied with the 
learning of the Torah ; and whosoever is occupied in the 
learning of the Torah, behold, such a one exalts himself, 
as it is said : And from Mattanah to Nachaliel, and 
from Nachaliel to Barnoth. " l 

3. 2 (3) " He who learns from his associate one chapter," or one 
precept, 4 or one verse, 5 or only one letter, 6 is bound 7 to 
show him honour. For so we find it in David, king of 
Israel, who learned from Ahithophel only two things, and 
he called him 8 his master, 9 his teacher, and his friend ; 
as it is said : But it was thou, a man mine equal, my 
teacher and my friend. 10 And is there not (here) an 
argument n from the less to the greater ? 12 (Namely) 

I And from Mattanah . . .: Num. xxi. 19. To the Hebrew reader 
this quotation is far more appropriate than appears at first sight, on 
account of the meaning of these proper names ; lit. translated the 
quotation reads : " From a gift to a heritage of God, and from a 
heritage of God to the heights " (i.e. of Heaven). 

- This presumably begins a new saying of R. Jehoshua, but the 
character of what follows belongs to a later period. 

3 one chapter . . . : This shows that there was some definite 
division of the Biblical text into chapters, sections, and verses ; what 
the original system was is not known ; the only remains of it are the 
names of sections given to them from the opening words ; this applies 
to the special lessons from the Pentateuch and the Prophetical books 
as arranged in the Synagogue services. The present chapter and 
verse divisions in the O.T. are of Christian origin. The Hebrew word 
for " chapter" is perek (properly "section") ; for " verse," pasitk (from 
the root meaning "to divide "). 

4 precept : halakah ; evidently this might comprise more than one 

5 verse : Two MSS. add : "or one saying," and so below. 

6 letter : lit. " sign." 

7 is bound : -ns means one who is under the necessity of doing 

8 he called him : Some authorities : "and he made him," and so below. 

9 his master : lit. " his Rabbi." 

10 But it was thou . . .: Ps. lv. 14 (Hebr.). 

II argument: lit. "words" or "things." 

12 from the less to . . . : The argument a minori ad majus cp, 
Luke xi. 13 ; xii. 28 ; Rom. v. 17. 

78 vi 

since David, king of Israel, who learned from Ahithophel 
only two things, made him his master, his teacher, and 
his friend, how much more l is he who learns from his 
associate one chapter, or one precept, or one verse, or 
only one letter, bound to show him honour ! And (by) 
* honour (is meant) nothing but the Torah, as it is said : 
The wise shall inherit honour, 2 And the peifect 
shall inherit good. 3 And there is no good but the 
Torah, as it is said : For I will give you good doctrine ; 
forsake ye not My Torah. " 4 

4/ (4) "This is the way of the Torah : A morsel of bread with salt 6 
shalt thou eat, and water by measure shalt thou drink, 7 
and on the ground shalt thou sleep, and a life of weariness 
shalt thou lead, and in the Torah shalt thou labour. If 
thou doest thus, Happy shalt thou be, and it shall be 
well with thee ; 8 happy shalt thou be in this world, 
and it shall be well with thee in the world to come." 

5. (5) "Seek not greatness for thyself, and covet not honour": 
" Practise more than thou learnest " ; 9 and " Lust not 
after the table of kings, for thy table is greater than their 
table, and thy crown 10 is greater than their crown ; and 
faithful is He who is the Master of thy work, who will 
recompense thee the reward of thy work." n 

6. 12 (6) " Greater is Torah than the priesthood and the kingdom : 

1 how much more : rraai TOD, lit. " like what and like what ?" 

- The wise shall . . .: Prov. iii. 35. 

:i And the perfect . . .: Prov xxviii. 10. 

4 For I will give . . .: Prov. iv. 2. 

J This is probably a new saying, the author being anonymous. 

(; A morsel . . .: i.e. a poor man s fare. 

7 and water . . .: Ezek. iv. 11. 

s Happy shalt thou be . . .: Ps. cxxviii. 2. 

!> Practise more . . .: cp. the second saying in i. 17. 

thy crown : i.e. the crown of the Torah ; see iv. 17. 

11 and faithful is He ... thy work : Quoted verbally from ii. 20. 

12 Again an anonymous saying : cp. iv. 17. 

vi 79 

for the kingdom is acquired by thirty degrees, 1 and the 
priesthood by twenty four ; but the Torah is acquired by 
forty-eight things, and they are these : by learning with 
attentive ear, 2 by preparation of the lips, 3 by a discerning 
heart, 4 by dread, by fear, by meekness, by joy, 5 by 
waiting upon the wise, by careful discussion with 
associates, by subtle argument with disciples, by diligent 
recourse 6 to Scripture and Mishnah : with little worldly 
business, 7 with little sleep, with little talk, 8 with little 
luxury, with little laughter, 9 with little secular occu 
pation ; 10 by longsuffering, by kind-heartedness, by trust 
in the wise men, by (resigned) acceptance of chastise 
ments. He who knows his place, 11 who rejoices in 12 
his lot, who puts a restraint 13 upon his words, who 
claims no merit 14 for himself, who is beloved, who loves 

I degrees : lit. " steps." With the form of the enumeration which 
follows cp. 2 Cor. vi. 4-10 ; xi. 23-27. 

- with attentive ear: lit. "with the hearing of the ear"; the 
traditional teaching of the Torah was given by word of mouth, so one 
learned by hearing, not by reading, though after the Mishnah had 
been redacted this was of course read. 

3 by preparation of the lips : i.e. for the purpose of repeating what 
was taught. 

4 discerning heart : The heart was regarded as the seat of under 

5 by joy : One MS. adds : " by pureness." 

6 by diligent recourse : lit. " by sitting." 

7 worldly business : lit. "traffic," from the root -ire, "to go round," 
" to be busied"; cp. ii. 5. 

8 with little talk : Two MSS. omit. 

II laughter : or "jesting"; cp. Eph. v. 4. 

10 secular occupation : lit. " way of the earth " (p -p) ; see note 
on ii. 2 ; the difference between this and "worldly business" above is 
that this latter refers to trade, the other to intercourse with others. 

11 He who knows his place : Some words, such as "the Torah is 
acquired by him," must be mentally supplied. 

- who rejoices in . . .: i.e. one who is contented. 

13 who puts a restraint . . .: lit. "who makes a fence (re, cp. \. i) 
to his words." 

14 who claims no merit . . .: cp. ii. 8 and note. 

So vi 

God, 1 who loves mankind, who loves almsgiving, 2 who 
loves guidance, 8 who loves uprightness, who cares not * 
for honours, who is not proud 5 of his learning, who 
does not glory in a decision, 6 who helps to bear the 
yoke 7 with his associate, and who inclines to 8 the scale 
of merit, who establishes him 9 upon the truth, who 
establishes him upon peace, who sets himself calmly 10 to 
his study, who asks 11 and answers, who hearkens and 
adds (to what is said), who learns for the purpose of 
teaching, who learns for the purpose of practising, who 
makes his teacher 12 wise, who marks carefully what he 
has heard, and who utters 13 a saying in the name of him 
who said it ; behold, thou hast learned 14 (that) whosoever 

1 who is beloved. . . God: cp. ii. 13 ; the word for "God" is 
again Makom. 

2 almsgiving: lit. "righteousness"; cp. note on v. 15. 

" who loves guidance : This is what the phrase means ; the word 
for "guidance" is lit. "rebukes" or the like! 

4 who cares not : lit. " who keeps at a distance from." 

5 who is not proud . . .: lit. " who is not puffed up in his heart." 

who does not glory . . . : lit. " who does not rejoice "; the 
" decision " (mmn) refers to an accepted halakic or legal interpreta 
tion. Two MSS. add: "and who does run after (lit. pursue ) 

7 who helps to bear the yoke : i.e. the yoke of the Torah ; cp. 
iii. 6 ; for the construction NOT bun cp. Job vii. 13, >i3jo -rrlra N\L, 
" My couch shall ease my.complaint "; the force of n is " shall bear 
together with," i.e. shall help to bear ; so in the words before us, "he 
who helps to bear the yoke"; how he does this is shown in the 
words that follow. 

8 who inclines to . . .: See note on ii. 2. 

9 who establishes him. . .: lit. "who causes him to stand"; cp. 
\. 1 8. 

10 who sets himself calmly : This seems to be the force of afro, 
a non-Biblical form ; two MSS. unnecessarily add "his heart." 

11 who asks . . . : cp. v. 9. 

12 his teacher : lit. " his Rabbi." 

3 who utters . . .: i.e. who gives out as his own something that 
he has learned from another. 

14 behold, thou hast learned : What follows is a quotation from 
T.B. Chullin 104 b (Herford). 

vi 8 1 

utters a saying in the name of him who said it brings 
redemption * to the world, as it is said : * And Esther 
told it to the king in the name of Mordecai." 

7. (7) "Great is Torah, which gives life to those who practise in 
this world and in the world to come, as it is said : For 
they are life unto those that find them, and health 
to all their flesh ; 2 and it says (further) : It shall be 
health to thy navel, and marrow to thy bones ; 3 it 
says also: She is a tree of life to them that lay hold 
upon her, and happy is everyone that retaineth her ; 4 
it says also : For they shall be an ornament of grace 
unto thine head, and chains about thy neck ; 5 it says 
also : She shall give to thine head an ornament of 
grace, a crown of glory shall she deliver unto thee ; 6 
it says also : Length of days is in her right hand, and 
in her left hand riches and honour ; 7 it says also: 
For length of days and years of life and peace shall 
they add unto thee. " 8 

cS. (S) Rabbi Simeon ben Menasia 9 said in the name of 10 Rabbi 

1 redemption : geullak ; this word must, of course, not IDC under 
stood in its present-day technical meaning ; it is often used in Rab 
binical literature in the sense of " protection," and that is probably 
what it means here, i.e. he who hands on a saying of his teacher is 
helping many others in the world, because the saying in question is 
able to act as a protection against evil thoughts or acts. The quotation 
from Esther ii. 22, which follows, bears this out. 

2 For they are life . . .: Prov. iv. 22. 

3 It shall be health . . .: Prov. iii. 8. 

4 She is a tree of life . . .: Prov. iii. 18. 
" For they shall be . . .: Prov. i. 9. 

; She shall give . . .: Prov. iv. 9. 

7 Length of days . . .: Prov. iii. 16. 

s For length of days . . .: Prov. iii. 2. Note how the Torah is 
implicitly identified with Wisdom. 

9 R. Simeon ben M. : He lived during the second half of the second 
century A.D. 
10 in the name of: See notes on ii. 10 ; iii. 10. 


82 vi 

Simeon ben Jochai : x " Beauty, 2 and strength, and 
wealth, and honour, and wisdom, and ripe age, and old 
age, and children, are an ornament 2 for the righteous, 
and an ornament to the world ; as it is said : * The hoary 
head is a crown of beauty, it is found in the way of 
righteousness ; 3 it says also : The glory of young men 
is their strength, and the beauty of old men is the grey 
head ; 4 it says also : Sons sons are the crown of old 
men, and the glory of sons are their fathers ; 5 it says 
also : Then the moon shall be confounded, and the sun 
ashamed, when the Lord of Hosts shall reign in Mount 
Zion, and in Jerusalem, and before His ancients 
gloriously/ " 6 

9. Rabbi Simeon ben Menasia said : " These seven qualities 7 
which the wise men have reckoned (as belonging) to the 
righteous were all of them realised in Rabbi and his 
sons." 8 

10. (9) Rabbi Jose ben Kisma 9 said: "Once I was walking in the 
way, and a man met me, and greeted me, 10 and I returned 
his greeting. He said to me : * Rabbi, from what place 

1 R. Simeon b. J. : He lived a little earlier, middle of second 
century, than R. Simeon ben M. 

2 Beauty ; ornament : These two words, *o and nrc, are radically- 
connected ; "Beauty" is explained as consisting of "strength, and 
wealth, etc."; these constitute the ornament called "Beauty." See 
note on next verse. 

3 The hoary head . . .: Prov. xvi. 31. 

4 The glory of. . .: Prov. xx. 29. 

6 Sons sons . . .: Prov. xvii. 16. 

fi Then the moon . . . : Is. xxiv. 23. 

7 These seven qualities : This bears out what is said in the note 
above (" Beauty ; ornament "), for the qualities mentioned are seven, 
and these constitute " Beauty." The word for " qualities " is middoth ; 
on this see note on v. 12. 

8 Rabbi and his sons : See note on ii. i. 

9 R. Jose ben K. : He lived early in the second century A.D. 

10 greeted me: lit. "gave me peace"; so, too, in the words that 
follow, lit. " I returned to him peace." 

vi 83 

art thou? I said to him: From a great city of \\ise 
men and scribes 1 am I. He said to me: Rabbi, if 
thou be willing to dwell with us in our place I will give 
thee a thousand thousand dinars of gold, 2 and precious 
stones, and pearls. 3 I said to him : My son, if thou 
gavest me all the silver and gold and precious stones and 
pearls in the world I would not dwell excepting in a 
place of the Torah, 4 since in the hour of his departure 
neither silver nor gold nor precious stones nor pearls 
accompany him, but only the Torah and good works, as 
it is said : " When thou goest it shall lead thee, and 
when thou sleepest it shall keep thee, and when thou 
awakest it shall talk with thee." 5 "When thou goest it 
shall lead thee," (that is) in this world; "and when thou 
sleepest it shall keep thee," (that is) in the grave; "and 
when thou awakest it shall talk with thee," (that is) in 
the world to come. And so also it is written in the Book of 
Psalms by the hands of David, king of Israel : " The law 
of Thy mouth is better unto me than thousands of gold 
and silver " ; 6 it says also (elsewhere) : " The silver is 
Mine and the gold is Mine, saith the Lord of Hosts." " 7 

u. (10) Five 8 possessions hath the Holy One Blessed be He! 
acquired in His world, and they are these : The Torah 
is one possession, the heavens and the earth are one 
possession, Abraham is one possession, Israel is one 

1 Scribes : Sopherim 

- dinars of gold : = deiiarii of gold ; a golden denarius was worth 
25 silver ones ; both are often mentioned in the Mishnah ; see further 
Schiirer, ii. 73 f. 

3 pearls : The word rro-ro = p-npyij\is (cp. papyapi^s} ; it is used 
mostly in the plural ; the phrase "white as a pearl (rvbno)" occurs in 
T.B. Yoitia 75 a (Jastrow) ; cp. Matt. xiii. 45, 46. 

4 a place of the Torah : i.e. a place where the Torah was taught ; 
see iv. 18. 

6 When thou goest . . .: Prov. vi. 22. 

c The law of Thy mouth . . .: Ps. cxi\. 72. 

7 The silver is Mine . . .: Hag. ii. 8. 

8 Five : One MS. reads "four." 

G 2 

84 vi 

possession, the House of the Sanctuary is one possession. 
The Torah is one possession; whence (is this proved)? 
In that it is written: The Lord possessed me in the 
beginning of His way, before His works of old. 1 The 
heavens and the earth are one possession ; whence (is 
this proved)? In that it is written: Thus saith the 
Lord, The heavens are My throne, and the earth is My 
footstool ; where is the house that ye build unto Me, and 
where is the place of My rest ? 2 It says also : O Lord, 
how manifold are Thy works, in wisdom hast Thou made 
them all : the earth is full of Thy possessions. 3 Abraham 
is one possession ; whence (is this proved) ? In that it is 
said : And he blessed him, and said, Blessed be Abram 
of the Most High God, possessor of heaven and earth. 4 
Israel is one possession ; whence (is this proved) ? In 
that it is written : Till Thy people pass over, O Lord, 
till the people pass over which Thou hast possessed ; 5 
it says also : To the saints that are in the earth, and to 
the excellent, in whom is all my delight. 6 The House 
of the Sanctuary is one possession : whence (is this 
proved) ? In that it is written : The place, O Lord, 
which Thou hast made for Thee to dwell in ; the sanc 
tuary, O Lord, which Thy hands have established ; 7 it 
says also: And He brought them to the border of His 
sanctuary, even to this mountain, which His right hand 
had possessed. " 8 

12. 9 (u) " Whatsoever the Holy One Blessed be He ! created 

1 The Lord possessed me . . .: Prov. viii. 22. The Torah again 
identified with Wisdom. 

2 Thus saith the Lord . . ,: Is. lx\i. i. 

: Lord, how manifold . . .: Ps. civ. 24. 
4 And he blessed him . . .: Gen. xiv. 19. 
:t Till Thy people . . . : Exod. xv. 1 6. 
(i To the saints . . .: Ps. xvi. 3. 

7 The place, Lord . . .: Exod. xv. 17. 

8 And He brought them . . .: Ps. Ixxviii. 54. 

9 Another anonymous saying. 

vi 8 5 

in His world, He created only for 1 His glory, as it is said: 
Everyone that is called by My name ; for I have created 
him for My glory, I have formed him, yea, I have made 
him ; 2 it says also : The Lord shall reign for ever 
and ever. " 3 

[In Taylor s edition the following saying, which is repeated 
at the end of each of the six chapters in the Wilna edition of 
the Talmud, is given : " Rabbi Chanania ben Akashia said : 
The Holy One Blessed be He ! was pleased to give merit 
to Israel ; therefore He multiplied unto them Torah and 
precepts, for it is said : "The Lord is well pleased for His 
righteousness sake ; He will magnify the Law, and make it 
honourable" (Is. xlii. 21). "] 

1 He created only for . . .: lit. kk He did not create but fo 
- Everyone that is called . . .: Is. xliii. 7. 
3 The Lord shall reign . . .: Kxod. xv. 18. 


Aaron, 62 

disciples of, 9 

the peacemaker, 9 
Abba Shaul, 22 
Ab beth-din, 3, 4 
Abimelech, 62 
Abodah, xiii, 2 
Abraham, 31, 40, 61, 83 

disciples of, 72 

God s possession, 84 

love of, 62 

ram of, 66 
Abtalion, 7 
Abuyah, R., 57 
Academy, xvii, 4 
Accuser, xii, 53, 59 
Acquisition of the Torah, 74 
Adam, 61 
Advocate, 53 

Afflictions of the righteous, 56 
Ages of man, the, 73 
Ahithophel, 77, 78 
Akabiah ben Mahalaleel, 28 
Akiba, R., xviii, 22, 31, 32, 33, 
35, 38, 40, 41, 43, 44, 47, 49, 

52, 53, 54 

Alexander Jannseus, 6 
Alexandra (Salome), xvi, 6 
Alexandria, 54 
Almsgivers, types of, 69 
Almsgiving, 3, 20, 80 
Altar of hewn stone, reason for 
prohibition of, 65 

of stone, 65 

the brazen, 65 

wood for the, 63 
Am ha-aretz, xiii, 6, 19, 39, 68 

PIR. AB. 87 

Amnon, 70 

Amora, 56 

Angels, 44 

Anthropomorphic thought, 61 

Antigonos, 3, 36 

Arbela, 5 

Argument a minori ad ma.jus, 77 

Arpachshad, 61 

Article, omission of the Hebrew 8 

Ashkenazic Prayer Book, xix 

Asphalt, dealer in, 59 

Associate in study, 77 

behaviour towards, 57 
Atonement, 44 

by death, 18 

by sickness, 45 

the day of, 50, 53, 62 

Babe unborn, 66 
Balaam, 42 

Balancing of works, 40 
Ban, 76 

Banquet, Messianic, 45 
Banqueti ng-hall, 56 
Bar Cochba, xviii 

rebellion of, 39, 41 
Bar Kappara, 51 
Bar Mitzvah, 73 
Barnoth, 77 
Bartotha, 35 
Bath-Kol, xiv, 76 
Bee-hive, 64 
Beer, 64 
Ben Azzai, 48 
Ben Bag-Bag, 74 
Ben He-He, 74 
Ben Illai, 54 


13en Jochai, 55 
Ben Sira, xv, 45 
Ben Zoma, 47, 48 
Berioili, xii 
Beth ha-Keneseth, 54 
Beth ha-Midrash, 13, 70 
Between the suns, 63 
Bileam, disciples of, 72 
Boraiiha, 16 
Business-house, 44 

Cain, 33 

Caleb, 34 

Calf, the golden, 62 

Canaan, the land of, 62 

Captivity, 55 

Chaber (see also Associate), 6, 23 

Chakamim, xii, 4, 8, 13, 37 

Chalaphtaof Kephar-Chananiah,33 

Chanania ben Akashia, R., 85 

Chananiah, 29 

ben Teradyon, R., 30 
Chaninah ben Chakinai, 32 

ben Dosa, 38 

Character, four types of, 68 
Charash, 56 
Charuth, 76 

Chasid, 19, 22, 68, 69, 70 
Chasidim, 19 
Cheresh, 56 
Cheruth, 76 
Chuppah, 73 

Circumcision, covenant of, 62 
Cloud, 30 

Companionship in the study of 
the Torah (see also Chaber). 6 
Congregation, 34 
Correspondence of things in 

heaven and earth, 38 
Court, house of the, 4 
Courts, provincial, 52 
Covenant of circumcision, the, 62 
Creation, the, 63 

God s work of, 61 

six things in^existence before 
the, 42 

things not mentioned at the, 63 
Crown, the, 51, 78 

Crown of a good name, the 55 
of kingship, the, 55 
of priesthood, the, xiv, 55 
of Torah, the, xiv, 55 

Cycle, the seven-year, 68 

Dabar acher, 57 
Daniel, 36 
Darshan, 76 
David, 7, 77, 78, 83 

hymn of thanksgiving of, 35 
Day of Atonement, 50, 53, 62 
Death an atonement, 18, 45 

penalty, 67 
Decision, judicial, 52 
Decrees of Moses, 55 
Dew (ink), 58 
Demons, 63, 65 
Denarius, golden, 83 
Dessert after meals, 47 
Destruction, pit of, 72 
Diamond, 65 
Din, 13 
Dinar, 83 

Disposition, types of, 69 
Divine providence, 43 

retribution, 53 

Divisions in the Biblical text, 77 
Divorce, restriction of, xvi, 6 
Doctrinal standpoint of Pirke 
Aboth, xv 

teaching, sense of proportion 

in > 43 

Dosa ben Harkinas, R., 39 
Dosthai, R., 38, 56 

ben R. Jannai, R., 36, 37 

Earnest (pledge), xii, 43 

Earth, the mouth of the, 64 

Eber, 61 

Edah, 34 

Eden, Garden of, 5, 72 

Education, 6 

Egypt, 62 

Eleazar, R., 27, 54 

ben Arak, R., 22, 23 /, 

ben Azariah, R., 45 

ben Jehudah, R., 35 

8 9 

Eleazar Chasama, R., 46 

ha-Kappar, 59 

lia-Modai, R., 39 
Eliezer, R., 24 

ben Hyrcanos, R., 21, 22 /. 

ben Jacob, R., 36, 53 
Elisha ben Abuyah, 57 
El-Medije, 39 
Enoch, 6 1 
Enosh, 6 1 
Ensign, 62 
Ephod, 65 
Epicurean, 27 
Epispasmus, 40 
Essential word in O.T. quotation, 

34. 37 
Esther, 81 
Ethical and cosmic processes 

related, 61 

Ethics of the Fathers, ix 
Evil eye, 23, 72 

waters, 8 

Exaggerated statements in Rab 
binical writings, 32 
Excommunication, 76 
Exile, going into, 55 
Eye, evil, 23, 24, 72 

good, 23, 72 

of a needle, 53 
Ezra, i, 36 

False swearing, 52 
Father in heaven, our, 40, 72 
Fence, 2, 79 
Fez, the Jews of, xix 
Fibre, 58 
Flint, 65 
Flood, the, 61 

Formula for introducing a com 
parison, 46 

in quoting the O.T., 30 
Foxes, a head to, 56 
Free-will, doctrine of, 43 
Fringes, 47 
Funnel, 70 
Future, form of expressing the, 29 

Gamliel (?), 11, 12 

Gamliei I., ix 

II., xvii, 4, 45 

III., 16, 18, 54 
Garden of Eden, 5, 72 
Geburah, 74 
Gehinnom, 5, 72 
Gemara, 54 
Gematria, 47 

Gentiles, conversion of the, 10 
Geullah, 81 
Gilgal, 19 
Glory of God, 30 
Gnostic, Elisha ben Abuyah a, 

God compared with a broker, 44 

glory of, 30 

" they " used for, 49, 50 
God s gifts to man, 44 
Golden calf, the, 62 
Golgotha, xii 
Good eye, 23, 72 

name, the crown of a, 55 

works, 40, 57, 80 

and repentance, 53 
Grace, 43 

act of, 41 

at meals, 31 

Christian development of the 
doctrine of, 44 

doctrine of, 28 

the world judged by, 44 
Great Synagogue, the, xv, i 
Greek words Hebraised, xii 
Gftf. 13 
Gulgoleth, 19 

Hadrian, xviii, 39 
Hagar, casting out of, 62 
Halakah, 9, 40, 66, 67, 77 

meaning of, 47 
Halakic interpretation, 80 
Halakoth, essentials of, 467. 
Ha-mo adoth, 39 
Handiwork, 7 
Ha- Olam ha-ba, xii, 20 
Ha- Olam ha-zeh, xii, 20 
Head to foxes, a, 56 
Heart, a good, 23 

Heart, the seat of the under 
standing, 79 

Heaven and earth, correspondence 
of things in, 38 

Hereafter, judgement in the, 59 

Heretical teaching, 8 

Herod the Great, 9 

High-priest the head of the 
Sanhedrin, 3 

Hillel, ix, xvi, xvii, 18, 20, 51, 71, 

called ha-Zaken, 15 

genealogy of, 14 

house of, 9, ii 

teaching of, 9/. 
Holy One, the, 83, 84 

Spirit, the, 76 
Horcb, Mount, 76 
House of judgement, 67 

of learning, 4 

types of character among 
those who frequent the, 70 

meeting, 54 

study, 13 

the court, 4 

the Sanctuary, 84 

Idol s temple, flesh from, 32 
Ikkarim, 13 

Incommunicable Name, the, 50 
Indwelling, divine, 30 
Ingathering, the feast of, 68 
Ink, 58 

Interpretation, halakir, 80 
Interpreter, 76 

of the Law, 56 
Irbid, 5 
Isaac, offering up of, 62 

Bar Shelomoh, 15, 37 
Ishmael, R., 40, 5O/. 

repudiation of, 62 
Israel, 83 

God s possession, 84 

of Toledo, 15 

Israelites, the people of the Law, 

Jabneh, 21, 45 

Jacob, R., 36, 56 
acob s ladder, 47 
amnia, Academy of, xvii, 21 
annai, R., 36, 56 
ared, 61 

ehoshua ben Levi, R., 76 
Jehuda ben Tema, 72 
Jehudah, R., 54 
ha-Nasi, xviii 
Jerobeam, 71 
Jewish-Christians, 27 
Liturgy, 26, 31, 32 
quotation from, 18 
Jochanan ben Zakkai, ix, xvii, 
20, 21, 22, 33, 38, 39, 50, 53 
parable of, xvii/. 
ben Berokah, R., 49 
the Sandal-maker, R., 54 
Johannine theology, 31 
Jonathan, 71 

R., 52 
Jose, R., 51 

ben Jehudah of Kephar ha- 

Babli, 58 
ben Jochanan, 4 
ben Joezer, 3 
ben Kisma, R., 82 
the priest, R., 21, 22 ff. 
Josephus, i, 2, 3, 27, 31, 36 
Joshua, i, 34 

ben Chananiah, R., 21, 22 
ben Perachiah, 5 
Jubilee, year of, 67 
Judah ben Tabai, 6 
ha-Nasi, 15, 28 
udaism, 21 

udgement, house of, 67 
udges of tribunals, 52 
udicial decision, 52 
ustice, 71 

Kabbalah, i 
Kenan, 61 
Kenisah, 54 
Kephar Asis, 40 

ha-Babli, 58 
Kibroth-hattaavah, 62 
King of the kings of kings, 60 

Kingdom of Heaven, the yoke of, 


Kingship, the crown of, 55 
Kinnin, 46 

Kinyan ha-Torah, x, 74 
Kodashim, 39 
Korah, 71 
Koran, 73 

Lamech, 61 

Law and eternal life, 20 

carrying out of the, 38 

interpreter of the, 56 

knowledge of the, 38 

people of the, 42 

spoken of as a crown, 10 

studied by God, n 

study of the, n, 17, 38, 39, 47 

the portion of the, 73 

transgression of the, 25 
Lawyers, the, xii 
Legal requirements, 12 
Legends of the Jews, 62 
Lessons in the Synagogue ser 
vices, 77 

Le vitas of Jabneh, R., 49 
Light of head, 40 
Lilin, 66 

Lions, a tail to, 56 
Loaves, 63 
Logos, 30 

Longsuffering of God, 61 
Love, different kinds of, 70 /. 
Lydda, 39, 76 

Maccabaean family, 39 

Mahalaleel, 61 

Maimonides, xix, 61, 62 

Thirteen Principles of Faith 
of, 13 

Makom (Name for God), 24, 26, 
32, 42, 75, 80 

Malkuth, 33 

Mammon, xii 

meaning of, in Rabbinical writ 
ings, 25 

Manna, 62, 65 

Marah, 62 

Marriage, age for, 73 

Massorah, 41 

Massoretic text, i 

Mathiah ben Charash, R., 56 

Mattanah, 77 

Mazzikin, 63, 65 

Mediator, 31 

Meir, R., x, 34, 37, 41, 53, 57, 75 

Memra, 30 

identified with the Torah, 42 
Merit, 21, 71, 75, 85 

of the fathers, 17 
Messiah, the, xviii 

Bar Cochba regarded as the, 4 1 
Messianic banquet, the, xiii 

future, the, 29 
Methuselah, 61 
Middah, 74 
Middoth, 68, 82 
Mikra, 73 
Minyan, 34 
Miriam, 64 
Mishnah, xviii, 19, 36, 37, 54, 65,79 

additions to the, 15 

age for study of the, 73 
Mishnath ha-Chasidim, xi 
Mishnic collection begun by R. 

Akiba, 41 
Mitzvah, 15, 21 
Modin, 39 
Mo ed, 39 
Mordecai, 81 
Moses, i, 26 

decrees of, 55 

murmuring against, 62 

sepulchre of, 66 

the righteous, 71 
Mount Horeb, 76 

Sinai, 47 

Zion, 82 
Mouth of the earth, 6.j 

she-ass, 64 

well, 64 

Nachaliel, 77 
Nahor, 61 

Name, an enduring, 55 
good, crown of a, 55 

9 2 

Name, in the, 23 

of, saying in the, So/. 

of God, profanation of the, 49 /. 
substitute for the, 28 

profanation of the, 67 

the, 49 

the incommunicable, 50 
Nasi, 3, 4 

Nechuniah ben ha-Kanah, R., 33 
Needle s eye, 53 
Nehorai, R., 55 
Nejar (paper), 58 
New Year s Day, 53 
Nezikin, ix 
Niddah, 46 
Nittai the Arbelite, 5 
Noah, 6 1 
Nysa, 36 

Oil used for making ink, 58 

Olive oil, 58 

Omer, 63 

Omission of the article in Hebrew, 

Onkelos, Targum of, quotations 

from, 64 

Oral Law, the, xvi, 37 
Orders of the Mishnah, ix 

Paper, 58 

Papyrus, 58 

Parable, a, 82 /. 

Passover, the, "39 

Pasuk, 77 

Paul, St., 54 

Pauline teaching, 43 

Peace, form of greeting, 56, 82 

Peleg, 6 1 

People of the land (see also 

Am ha-aretz), 19 
Perek, 77 

of R. Meir, x 
Personality of God, 43 
Pharaoh, 62 

Pharisaic interpretation of the 
Law, xvi/. 

party, xvi 

Pharisee, a priest, an example of, 

Philo, i, 57 

Pillar of smoke, 63 

Pirke Aboth, anonymous sayings 

in, x 

authors of, xvff. 
character of, ix# 
contents of, ixj/. 
doctrinal standpoint of, xv 
ethical-religious sayings in. x 
fathers mentioned in, x 
humanness of the writers of, x 
importance of, for N.T. study, 

in the Jewish Liturgy, x/. 

manuscripts of, xix 

part of the Wisdom Literature, 

reminiscent of Ben Sira and 
Proverbs, x 

title of, ix 

Pit of destruction, 72 
Pitcher, 58 

Poor, the tithe of the, 68 
Porch, 56 
Prayer a means of grace, 26 

Book, Ashkenazic, xix 
Predestination, doctrine of, 43 
Priesthood, the crown of, xiv, 55 

a royal, xiv 
Profanation of the Name of God, 

49, 67 

Proselytism, 10 
Prosperity of the wicked, 56 
Providence, divine, 43 
Provincial courts, 52 
Psalm of thanksgiving in Ben 
Sira, 60 

Quotations from O.T., form of, 

in Rabbinical writings, 30 

Rab, 6 

Rabban, n, 15 
Rabbanuth, 8 
Rabbi, xii, 58, 59 


" Rabbi " (Judah ha-Nasi), xviii, 
15, 28, 82 

Rabbinical law, 39 

utterances often paradoxical, iS 

Rainbow, the, 65 

Ram of Abraham, the, 66 

Rashi, 35 

Rashnth, 43 

" Read not," an exegetical device, 

Reckoning, the, 59 

Red Sea, legends of, in Rabbinical 
writings, 62 

Relationship between God and 
man, 43 

Religious education, xvi 

Repentance, 56, 71 
and good works, 53 
teaching on, in Rabbinical writ 
ings, 53 

Rephidim, 62 

Retribution, divine, 53 

Reu, 61 

Righteous, afflictions of the, 56 

Righteousness, 69, 71, 80 

Ritual washing of hands, xvii 

Rock, the, 64 

Rod of Moses, the, 65 

Rome, 56 

Royal priesthood, a, xiv 

Ruchin, 66 

Sabbath, the, 62, 63 

sun, the, 63 

Sabbatical year, the, 67 
Sacrifices for the dead, 32 

offered to idols, 32 
Sadducees, the, xvi 
Sag an, 29 
St. Paul, 64 
Saints, 19 

Salome (Alexandra), xvi, 6 
Samuel the Small, 57 
Sanctuary, the house of the, 84 

ten wonders wrought in the, 62 
Sandal-maker, R. Jochanan the, 

Sanhedrin, 2, 3 

head of the, 3, 4 

the Great, 52 
Sarah, 62 

Sayings of the fathers, ix 
Schiller quoted, 48 
Scholars, types of, 69 
Scribes, xii, 2, 83 
Scriptural quotations in Rab 
binical writings, 34 f. 
Scriptures, age for reading the, 73 
Sea, the Red, 62 
Sedarim, ix 
Serug, 61 
Seth, 6 1 

Shalom, xiii, 56, 82 
Shamir, 65 
Shammai, xvi, 21, 71 

house of, n 

teaching of, gf. 
She-ass, mouth of the, 64 
Shedim, 66 

Shekhinah, xiv, 30. 31, 34 
Shelah, 61 
Shem, 6 1 

ha-mephoresh, 50 
Shema 1 , 26 
Shemaiah, 7 
Shemitta, 67 
Sheol, 60, 64 
Shewbread, 63 
Shield, xii 
Shoemaker, 54 
Shool, 39 

Sickness an atonement, 45 
Sidon, 32 
Sieve, 70 
Sign, 62 
Simeon I., 2 

II., ix, xv 

ben Eleazar, 57 

ben Jochai, R., 31, 55, 82 

ben Menasia, R , 81 

ben Nathanael, 22, 23/., 26 

ben Shetach, xvi, 6, 7, 31 

son of Gamliel, 12 

the Just, ix, xv, 2 
Sin, the wilderness of, 62 

Sinai, Mount, 47 

Skull, 19 

Smoke, pillar of, 63 

Soclio, 3 

Soldiers in the battle-line, 63 

Solomon s Temple, 65 

Song of the well, the, 64 

Soot used for making ink, 58 

Sophenm, xii, 83 

Souls in Heaven, 13 

Sponge, 70 

Studying in company with others, 

Substitute for the Name of God, 


Succoth, feast of, 68 
Suns, between the, 63 
Swearing, false, 52 
Synagogue, 54 
use of, 39 

Taberah, 62 

Tabernacle, the, 64 

Tabernacles, feast of, 39, 68 

Tables, the, 65 

Tail to lions, a, 56 

Talmud, the, 54 

age of study of the, 73 
Wilna edition of the, 85 

Tamar, 70 

Tanna, 36 

Tannaim, 3 

Targum of Onkelos, the, 64 

Tarphon, R., 27 

Temple, the, 63 
service, the, 2 
walls white as snow, 22 

Temptations of Abraham, 61 

Ten men forming a congregation, 
origin of, 34 

Tendency, the evil, 25 

Tent of meeting, the, 64 

Terah, 61 

Teshubah, 53 

Tetragrammaton, the, 50 

Text, unpointed, 76 

Theology, Johannine, 31 

Tithe of the poor, the, 68 

Tobiah, 6 
Tongs, 66 
Torah, 2, 23, 27, 30, 31, 32, 50, 

.51, 53 
a jewel, 42 
a place of the, 55, 83 
a precious instrument, 42 
acquired by forty-eight things, 


and Memra identified, 42 
called Tushiyyah, 75 
crown of the, xiv, 55, 78 
despising the, 76 
divine origin of the, 27 
exaggerated veneration for the, 

4 1 

existence of, before the Creation, 

fulfilling the, 52 

greatness of the, 78 

honouring the, 51 

identified with Wisdom, 42, 84 

intricacies of the, 55 

learning of the, 77 

life-giving, Si 

meaning of the word, i 

study of the, 54 
reward for, 75 

taught by word of mouth, 79 

the acquisition of the, 74 

the expression of the divine 
mind, 42 

the possession of God, 83 /. 

the secrets of the, 75 

the w r ater of life, 4 

the way of the, 78 

the world created by the, 42 

use of the, 50 

works of the, 50 

yoke of the, xiv, 33, 80 
Tosephta, 16, 38 
Tradition of the fathers, i 
Transgressions of the Law, 25 

seven kinds of, 66 f. 
Tushiyyah, 75 
Twilight, 63 

Types of character of those who 
sit among the wise, 70 


Unborn babe, 66 
Unpointed text of O.T., 76 

Vestibule, this world a, 56 
Vow, 55 

Washing of hands, ritual, xvii 
Water, figurative use of the word, 

Way, xiii 

of the earth, 33, 45, 79 

the evil, 24 

the good, 15, 23 
Well, 64 

mouth of the, 64 
Wicked, the prosperity of, 56 
Wilderness, the, 62 
Wilna edition of the Talmud, 85 
Wine, 58 

as a libation, 58 
Wisdom, 38, 45 

and the Torah identified, 42, 

the secondary things of, 47 

the world created by, 42 
Wise men (see Chakamim), 83 
Wood for the altar, 63 
Word, the, 42 
Word-play, 76 

Works, 38, 53 

balancing of, 40 

efficacy of, 28, 43 

evil, 40 

good, 40 
World to come, the (see also 

Ha- Olam ha-ba), xii, 20, 56 
Worldly occupation, 16, 79 

of Rabbis, 54 
Worm (Shamir), 65 
Writing-tablet, 44 

Yeshibah, 4, 20 
Yetzer, 48, 60 

ha-ra l , 25 

ha-tob, 25 
Yoke of the Kingdom of Heaven, 

of the Torah, xiv, 33, 80 

Zadok, R., 50 
Zakah, 71 
Zarethan, 3 
Zebub, 63 
Zecuth, 71, 75 

Aboth, 17 
Zedakah, xiii, 69 
Zeredah, 3 
Zibbur, 17 
Zion, Mount, 82 
Zugoth (pairs), 3 





Exodus (cont.) 



. . 41 

xvi. 15 


v. 1-31 

. . 61 

xvi. 20-27 

. 62 

VI. > 

. . 25 

XVll. 2 ....... 

. 62 

Vlll. 21 


XV111. 21, 24 


ix 6 


xx 24 


ix. 13 

xx. 25 

. 65 

xi. 10-26 .... 

. . 61 

XX111. 10-11 . 

6-, 68 

xii. 1-5 . . . . 

. . 61 

xxiii. 16 

. 68 

Xll. IO 

. . 62 

xxv. 30 


xii. i^ff. 

. . 62 

XXXll. I 

. 62 

xiv. 14 ff. . . . . 

. . 62 

xxxii. 16 

. 76 

XIV. 19 

. . 84 

xl. 34 ff. 


XVI. 2 

. . 62 

xvn. 9-10 .... 

. . 62 


xvin. 25 .... 

. . 52 

i. 7 


xix. 31 

. . 16 

vni. 9 


XX 2 ff 

. . 62 

xii. 8 

. 46 


. . 62 

xv. igff 

. 46 

xxn. 9-10 .... 

. 62, 63 

xix. 9 

. 68 

xxn. 13 .... 

. . 66 

xix. 32 


xxvu. 40 .... 


xxi. 8 


xxxi. 49 .... 


xxiii. 10-14 .... 


XXXll. 22 .... 

. . 63 

xxm. 17 


xxiv. 5-9 

. 63 


xxv. 17 

iv. 17 

. . 65 

xxvi. 34 /. 

. 67 

Xll. II 

Xll. 22 




. . 62 

IV ^ 


xv. 8 

. . 62 

XI. I 

. 62 

xv. 16-17 .... 


xi. 4 

. 62 

xv. 18 

. 85 


xv. 24 

. . 62 

XIV. 22 

. 62 

XVI. 2 

. . 62 

xiv. 27 



Numbers (com.) 


i l\tngs 


XV. 20 

. 6 7 

11. 2 

. . 16 

xv 37-41 

. 26 

vi. 7 

. . 65 

xvi. 2&ff. 

. 6 4 

viii. 64 . . ... 

. . 65 

xvi. 32 . . 

. 6 4 

xi. 26 . . 


xxi. 1 6 1 8 

. 6 4 

xiv. 6 


xxi. iq 


xv. 30 

. . 71 

xxii. 28 

. 64 


. . 50 

xxv. 2-3 


xxi. 8 

xxvii. 18-22 .... 


2 Kings 





i Chron. 

vi. 4-9 
xi. 13-21 ...... 



ix. 15 
xxix. 14 .... 
xxix. 1 8 .... 

. . 56 
- 35 


. 42 

xiv. 28 

. 68 

2 Chron. 

xvn. 15 
xxiv. 19 
xxvii. 6 
xxviii. 50 
xxxiii. 4 



. 26 

iv. 17 
viii. 13 
xix. 7 
xx. 7 ..... 
xxxvi. 15, 1 6 . 

. . 62 

XXXlll. 21 

7 1 

xxxiv. 4 





. . 65 




. . 16 

xxiv. 31 .... 


IV. 22 

ix. 34 



n. 7 

11. 30 
xiii. 20 . 
xvii. i . 


i Sam. 

2 Sam. 



i. i . 
xvi. 3 
xix. 5 

11. 22 .... 


. . so 

viii. 3 
xiv. 9 .... 

. . . 6 7 

. . 49 



xxix. 2^ 

. 40 

*, 3 
. 84 


9 8 

Psalms (cont.} PAGE 

xix. 7 47 

xxii. 32 23 

xxv. 14 ...... 75 

xxxiii. 6 ...... 42 

xxxiii. 9 .... * . 60 

xxxiii. 13-15 16 

xxxiii. 15 59 

xxxiv. 12. ff 9 

xxxiv. 15-16 ...... 16 

xxxvii. 21 24 

Iv. 14 77 

Ixxiii. 12-13 ..... 6 

Ixxiv. 5 5 T 

Ixxv. 7 52 

Ixxviii. 54 84 

Ixxxii. i 34 

civ, 24 

civ. 34 


cvi. 28 32 

CXI. 10 . 

cxix. 72 
cxix. 99 
cxxiv. 3 
cxxviii. 2 
cxxxix. 1 6 





cxli. 9 16 

cxlvi. 3 17 

cxlviii. 9 42 


i. 7 . . . 
i. 9 
i. 12. 
iii. 2 . 
iii. 5. 

iii. 8. . . 
iii. 16, 1 8 . 

. . . . 45 

. . . . 81 

. . . . 30 

. . . . 81 


. . . . 8r 

. . . . 81 

.... 78 

iv. 2 42, 78 

iv. 9 55, 81 

iv. 22 81 

vi. 16 x, 60 

vi. 22 83 

viii. 14-15 75 

viii. 21 72 

viii. 22 84 

ix. 5 45 

Proverbs (cont.} PA(;K 

ix. 10 15 

x. 19 -13 

xi. 2 75 

xi. 22 76 

xi. 23 49 

xi. 31 .... . 5 

xiii. 3 36 

xv. 3 43 

xv. 33 ... ... 45 

xvi. 31 

xvi. 32 48 

xvii. 16 82 

xvii. 28 13 

xviii. 4 22 

xx. 29 82 

xxii. i 55 

xxii. 9 23 

xxiii. 6 24 

xxiv. 17-18 57 

xxv. 6 8 

xxviii. 10 78 

xxviii. 22 24 

xxix. 23 10 


iii. 1-8 49 

iv. 9 . . . 6 

vii. i 20, 55 

vii. 27 59 

x. 17 28 

xii. 2 40 

xii. 13 45 

xii. 14 49 


11. 17 . 
vi. 2. 
viii. 19 . 
xxiv. 23 
xxv. 6 . 





xxvi. 3 25 

xxviii 1 8 
xxix. 4 . 
xxx. 28 
xxxii. 17 




XXXIII. 22 52 

xii. 8 



Isaiah (cont.) 

xliii. 7 .... 

. 5 

li. 8 . . . 


xlix. 20 .... 
Iv. 1-3 .... 
Iv. 24 


7 2 

m - l6 16, 31 

. 35 

Jxvi. i . 

. 84 

v. 14 



vn. 25 


xvii. 6, 8 . 

. 46 


xviii. 5-6 .... 

. 60 

i. 14 


xviii. 1 8 


v. ii, 13 


xxix. 7 . 


v. 23 

4 2 

xxxi. 13 .... 


vii. 5-6 


xxxi. 34 


vii. 16 


xxxvi. 18 . 


vn. 17 ... 


vui. 9 



ix. 9 


iii. 28 .... 

. 3! 

xiv. 8-1 o 


xv. 3 



xv. 14 



. 78 

xvii. 28 


xvi. 25 


xvii. 31 


xvi. 49 

. 68 

xviii. 19 ...... 


XVlll. 2 


XIX. 2O 


xli. 22 .. 


xx. 5-8 





XXV. 10 


v. 27 


xxx. 24 


Vll. 10 

. 16 

xxxi. 15 


xxxm. 14-15 



xxxvin. 3 


x. 14 .... 

XXXV111. 24-XXX1X. II . 


xli. 11-13 


11. 13 

. 26 

xli. 12-13 
xlii. 5 


iv. 33 


1. 1-24 xv 
li. 12 



li. 29 


ix. 6, 



Mica h 

i Mace. i. 15 


vi. 8 

11 15 


ix. i 


xiii. 25 


i. 7 . 

3 Mace. i. 3 



ll isdoui I..V.K Enoch (conl.) ].. u ,i 

viii. 22-^1 .... 


. . 42 

lx. 7-8 



XIV. 21 . . . 

. . 50 

Ixii. 14 


2 (4) Esdras 

Test. xii. Patr. 

vi. 38 . . . 

. . 42 

Levi xviii. ii 


vi. 49-52 .... 


Sib. Orac. 


Prorem 87 ...... 


IV. I 

iii 746 


Syr. Apoc. Baruch 

xxv. 4-5 .... 


xxix. 3-8 




Matthew (cont.} 

- 15 
ii. 17-18 .... 
iii. 3. 


xm. 45-46 
xiii. 47 ff. 

viv X 


iii. 9. 


iii. 13-17 . . . . 

. xiv, 76 

xvii. 5 



v. 7 


xviii. 20 ... xiv, 6, 30, 


v. 9 

v. 19 .... 
vi. 1-4 .... 

. . 16 
. xiii, 20 

xix. 24 
xix. 27 



vi. 5 


VV T ff 

vi. 9 

xiii, 8, 72 

" * 

xx. 1-16 


vi. 22-23 

. . 23 

xx. 15 


vi. 24 

. xn, 25 

xx. 35 


vn. 1-5 

. . 18 

xxiii. 8 


Vll. 2 ... 


xxiii. 12 


Vll. 12 . 


xxiii. i \ 


vu. 13-14 .... 

. xiii, 15 

xxiii. 15 5. 


vii. 24-27 .... 

. . 46 

xxiii. 16-26 . 


Vlll II 

xiv, 45 

xxiii. 34 xii 

lx - 37 

. . 27 

xxvi. 3 


x. 13 


xxvi. 29 xiv, 


x. 25 

5. 63 

xxvi. 49 


x. 4 1 

. . 70 

xxvi. 55 


xi. 25 


xxvi. 57 


xi. 29 


xxvi. 66 xiii, 


xi. 29-30 .... 

. xiv, 33 

xxvii. 23 


xn. 50 

. . 18 

xxvii. 33 


Xlll. 12 


xxvii. 48 xii, 



vii. 2 



John (cant.) 


VII. 21 

vii. 21-22 .... 


viii. 53 
ix 4 

. xiii, 61 

vii. 22 


xii. 2830 

. 27 

ix. i-n 
ix. 7 
x. 30 

. . 7 6 

. xiv, 76 
. xii 20 

xiv. 6 . 

xiv. 16, 26. 
xv 26 


x. 51 


xvi. 7 
xvii 10 


xii. 26 


xii. 29 
xvi. 15 

. . 26 

. xii, 10 

xviii. 12 ff. . 
xx. 7 





i. 63 xii, 44 

ii- 24 46 

ii- 4 1 ff 73 

"46 4. 9 

iii. 21-22 76 

v. 32 53 

vi. 21, 25 52 

viii. 17 49 

ix. 35 7 6 

x. 5 xiii, 56 

xi- 13 77 

XI. 27 22 

xi. 39 44 

xii. 28 77 

xiv. Sff. . . xviii 

xiv. 12-14 4 

xv. 18 61 

xvi. 9 49 

xvi. 10 12 

xvi. 11-12 25 

xvi. 19 28 

i. 16. . 
ii. 25 
v. 17 ff. 
v. 34 
v. 34-40 
vii. i 
ix. 1-2 . 









ix. 3-7 xiv, 76 

x. 13, 16 xiv, 76 

xvii. 28 24 

xviii. 3 7, 54 

xviii. 26 xiii, 15 

xix. 9 xiii, 15 

xix. 23 15 

xx. 34 7 

xxii. 3 .... xvii, 4, 15, 54 

xxii. 5 4 

xxiii. 2, 4 4 

xxiv. i 4 

xxiv. 14 15 

xvi. 24 



xvm. 30 .... 

Xll, 2O 

i. 5 . . 


i. 14. . 



Xll, 10 

i. i ff. 

. . 42 

ii. 6 . . 


11. 24 


iv. 14 

. 4, 8 

iv. 2. . 


iv. 27 


IV ^ 



iv. 4. . 


vii. 7 

. . 18 

v. 17 


vii. 37 

. . 8 

v. 19 


> 4- 75 

vii. 7ff. 


Romans (cont.) 


Galatians PACK 

vii. 9-10 .... 


ii. 16 


vn. 2223 .... 

. 25 

iii. 16 . 


viii. 19 

. xii, 10 

111. 22 . 


viii. 19-23 .... 

. . 61 

iv. 27 . 




iv 30 


ix A 

... T"* 5 

xiii 2 

ix. s . .... 

. . 60 


ix. 25 . . . . . 

xiii, 35 

i. 13-14. 

xii, 43 

XI. 2 

xin, 35 

1. 21. 

Xll, 20 

xi. 28 


ii. 8-10 . 

28, 43 

xii. 16 

. . 8 

iv. 6. 


xiii. iff 

. . 30 

iv. 8. . 


xiv. 19 

. . 9 

IV. 10 . 


xv. 7 

. . 17 

iv. 28 . 


v. 4 . . 


vi. 16 . 

xn, 53 

i Corinthians 

i. 20 

. xii, 4 


iii. 6 

. . 8 

iv. 8. . 


iii. 8 




iv. 12 


i. 15. 

xiii, 10 

vi. 18 

. . 48 

111. 17 


VI. 20 


vii. 18 

. . 40 



vii. 23 


11. 19 

...... 7 


. . 32 

v. 10 


ix. 16 

. 21 

ix. 18 




ix. 27 

. . 18 

iii. 8. . 


x. 1-4 

. . 64 

X. 12 

. . 18 

i Timothy 

x. 14 

. . 48 

11. 1-2 . 


X. 21 

. . 32 

x. 31 

. . 26 

2 Timothy 

xi. 27 

. Xlll 

11. 22 


xiii. 5 

. . 24 

iv. 8. 


Xlll. 12 

. 59 

xv. 28 

. . 24 


iv. 7. . 


x. 25 


2 Corinthians 

xii. 14 . 


1. 22 

xn, 43 


v. 5 , 

A. "5 

vi. 4-10 

. . 79 


xi. 23-27 .... 


i. 12. . 

xiv, n 

xi, 31 

, . 60 

i. 19. . 



James (cont.} P AG E 

I. 22J0T. .... 


11. i . 

. xii, 53 

j; 2 5 

. xiii 

111. 1-2 . 
HI. 15 ... 

. . . . 42 

11. 23 



....... xv 72 

ii. 9 ....... xiv, 55 

"i- ii ....... 9 Revelation 

iii. 12 ....... 16 ii. 14 ....... 72 

iii- I 5 ....... 27 x. 4 ....... X i v> 7 6 

in. 20 ....... 61 xii. 10 ...... xii, 53 

v - 5 ....... xiv, 75 xiv. 13 ...... xiv, 76 

xix. 9 ...... xiv, 45 

2 Peter xx. 12 ...... xiii, 16 

ii. 15 ....... 72 xxi. 3 ....... 31 

iii. 5-6 ....... 61 

S. P. C. K. 



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